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Biomedicines 2016, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/biomedicines4010003

In Vitro Synergistic Enhancement of Newcastle Disease Virus to 5-Fluorouracil Cytotoxicity against Tumor Cells

Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Research, Baghdad 1001, Iraq
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Academic Editor: Caroline Springer
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Abstract

Background: Chemotherapy is one of the antitumor therapies used worldwide in spite of its serious side effects and unsatisfactory results. Many attempts have been made to increase its activity and reduce its toxicity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is still a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent, especially in combination with other chemotherapies. Combination therapy seems to be the best option for targeting tumor cells by different mechanisms. Virotherapy is a promising agent for fighting cancer because of its safety and selectivity. Newcastle disease virus is safe, and it selectively targets tumor cells. We previously demonstrated that Newcastle disease virus (NDV) could be used to augment other chemotherapeutic agents and reduce their toxicity by halving the administered dose and replacing the eliminated chemotherapeutic agents with the Newcastle disease virus; the same antitumor activity was maintained. Methods: In the current work, we tested this hypothesis on different tumor cell lines. We used the non-virulent LaSota strain of NDV in combination with 5-FU, and we measured the cytotoxicity effect. We evaluated this combination using Chou–Talalay analysis. Results: NDV was synergistic with 5-FU at low doses when used as a combination therapy on different cancer cells, and there were very mild effects on non-cancer cells. Conclusion: The combination of a virulent, non-pathogenic NDV–LaSota strain with a standard chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, has a synergistic effect on different tumor cells in vitro, suggesting this combination could be an important new adjuvant therapy for treating cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: NDV (Newcastle disease virus); 5-FU (5-fluorouracil); virotherapy NDV (Newcastle disease virus); 5-FU (5-fluorouracil); virotherapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Shammari, A.M.; Salman, M.I.; Saihood, Y.D.; Yaseen, N.Y.; Raed, K.; Shaker, H.K.; Ahmed, A.; Khalid, A.; Duiach, A. In Vitro Synergistic Enhancement of Newcastle Disease Virus to 5-Fluorouracil Cytotoxicity against Tumor Cells. Biomedicines 2016, 4, 3.

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