Next Article in Journal
The “Centrality of Sepsis”: A Review on Incidence, Mortality, and Cost of Care
Next Article in Special Issue
Pilot Study of Immunoblots with Recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi Antigens for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Quality Improvement on Care of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients in an Internal Medicine Resident Clinic
Previous Article in Special Issue
Lyme Disease Transmission Risk: Seasonal Variation in the Built Environment
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Healthcare 2018, 6(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6030089

Far-Reaching Dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato-Infected Blacklegged Ticks by Migratory Songbirds in Canada

1
International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD 20827, USA
2
Epidemiology & Environmental Health, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
3
Vector-borne Disease Epidemiology and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
4
Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1586 KB, uploaded 30 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

Lyme disease has been documented in northern areas of Canada, but the source of the etiological bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) has been in doubt. We collected 87 ticks from 44 songbirds during 2017, and 24 (39%) of 62 nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, were positive for Bbsl. We provide the first report of Bbsl-infected, songbird-transported I. scapularis in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; Newfoundland and Labrador; north-central Manitoba, and Alberta. Notably, we report the northernmost account of Bbsl-infected ticks parasitizing a bird in Canada. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and DNA sequencing reveal that these Bbsl amplicons belong to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss), which is pathogenic to humans. Based on our findings, health-care providers should be aware that migratory songbirds widely disperse B. burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis in Canada’s North, and local residents do not have to visit an endemic area to contract Lyme disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; blacklegged ticks; Ixodes scapularis; songbirds; bird migration; northern Canada Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; blacklegged ticks; Ixodes scapularis; songbirds; bird migration; northern Canada
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, J.D.; Clark, K.L.; Foley, J.E.; Bierman, B.C.; Durden, L.A. Far-Reaching Dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato-Infected Blacklegged Ticks by Migratory Songbirds in Canada. Healthcare 2018, 6, 89.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Healthcare EISSN 2227-9032 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top