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Healthcare 2016, 4(4), 77; doi:10.3390/healthcare4040077

Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study

Public Health, School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222, Australia
Department of Cardiology, King Abdulla Medical City (KAMC), Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Clare Collins, Louisa J. Ells, Sharon Kirkpatrick and Megan Rollo
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [608 KB, uploaded 17 October 2016]   |  


Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7–15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; vitamin D deficiency; diabetes; obesity; Saudi Arabia; Middle East cardiovascular disease; vitamin D deficiency; diabetes; obesity; Saudi Arabia; Middle East

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aljefree, N.M.; Lee, P.; Alsaqqaf, J.M.; Ahmed, F. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study. Healthcare 2016, 4, 77.

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