- freely available
Healthcare 2016, 4(3), 39; doi:10.3390/healthcare4030039
2. Multi-Sectoral Partnerships
2.1. Schools: A Setting for Multi-Sectoral Adolescent Intervention
2.2. Shared Vision within Multi-Sectoral Partnerships
2.3. Partnership Engagement
3. Intervention Design: Theoretical Underpinnings
3.1. Sense-Making in Complex Adaptive Systems: Challenging Reductionist Thinking
- intervention design by multi-sectoral teams;
- contextual adaptation and integration of interventions within schools; and
- age-appropriate exploration of dynamic relationships between knowledge (known, knowable and emergent) and system agents contributing to the determination of NCD risk by participating adolescents, leading to evidence-based decision-making.
3.2. DOHaD: Biological Evidence Supporting Adolescent Intervention
3.3. Science Communication: Challenging Transmission, Promoting Transaction
3.4. Complexity of Risk and Impact: Why Educators are so Enthusiastic about NCDs
- extremely broad profiles of NCDs as a disease cluster;
- latency between environmental exposure and potential identification of risk;
- extended time over which risk and morbidity develops;
- breadth of physiological systems that may be impacted; and
- complex interaction of sociological, environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors that contribute to NCD risk profiles for individuals, families, and populations, including
- the double burden of maternal and child malnutrition alongside child and/or adult overweight, obesity and NCDs found in low- and middle-income countries and socially/economically disadvantaged populations, and
- impacts emerging from climate change, nutritional transitions, and food insecurity.
3.5. Capabilities Required to Negotiate Socio-Scientific Issues: Partnership Value of and for Education
3.5.1. Key Competencies
- interactive use of tools (language, text, knowledge, information, technologies);
- interactions within heterogeneous groups (the ability to relate well to others, cooperate, manage and resolve conflict); and
- the ability to act autonomously (act within the big picture, form and conduct life-plans and personal projects; defend and assert rights, interests, limits, and needs) .
3.5.2. Health Literacy
3.5.3. Scientific Literacy
- explain natural and technical phenomena;
- evaluate and design scientific enquiry; and
- interpret data and evidence scientifically .
3.5.4. Self Efficacy
3.6. Investing in Teachers: Developers and Facilitators of School-Based Interventions
- support educational and health goals in equal measure;
- be underpinned by appropriate pedagogies utilizing constructs such as student-centered learning, constructivist and inquiry-based epistemologies and epistemic thinking;
- support fulfillment of national-level curriculum, assessment and pastoral care policies and objectives;
- enable integration into school-level curriculum and policies (academic and pastoral), and support strategic development goals;
- provide resources that are designed to be adapted by teachers to meet social, cultural, pastoral and academic needs within their school community and classes, thus supporting development for all learners;
- be evaluated via protocols that are inclusive of the school community and the sectoral partners; and
- acknowledge that learning environments, scientific and health evidence are dynamic constructs, and that programs should evolve over time.
Conflicts of Interest
|DeSeCo||Development and Selection of Competencies|
|DOHaD||Developmental Origins of Health and Disease|
|ECHO||Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity|
|PLD||Professional Learning and Development|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
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