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Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Melbourne University, Victoria 3010, Australia
Epworth Dermatology, Suite 5.1, 32 Erin St, Richmond, Victoria 3121, Australia
Epworth Healthcare, 32 Erin St, Richmond, Victoria 3121, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2013; in revised form: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
Abstract: Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery), treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.
Keywords: melanoma; melanocyte; melanin; nevus; skin cancer; malignant melanoma; nodular melanoma; moles; cancer
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Perera, E.; Gnaneswaran, N.; Jennens, R.; Sinclair, R. Malignant Melanoma. Healthcare 2014, 2, 1-19.
Perera E, Gnaneswaran N, Jennens R, Sinclair R. Malignant Melanoma. Healthcare. 2014; 2(1):1-19.
Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Jennens, Ross; Sinclair, Rodney. 2014. "Malignant Melanoma." Healthcare 2, no. 1: 1-19.