Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Healthcare 2013, 1(1), 20-52; doi:10.3390/healthcare1010020
Article

Emerging Therapeutic Enhancement Enabling Health Technologies and Their Discourses: What Is Discussed within the Health Domain?

1,* , 1,†
, 2,†
, 2,†
, 2,†
 and 2
Received: 12 February 2013; in revised form: 12 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [290 KB, updated 30 July 2013; original version uploaded 25 July 2013]
Abstract: So far, the very meaning of health and therefore, treatment and rehabilitation is benchmarked to the normal or species-typical body. We expect certain abilities in members of a species; we expect humans to walk but not to fly, but a bird we expect to fly. However, increasingly therapeutic interventions have the potential to give recipients beyond species-typical body related abilities (therapeutic enhancements, TE). We believe that the perfect storm of TE, the shift in ability expectations toward beyond species-typical body abilities, and the increasing desire of health consumers to shape the health system will increasingly influence various aspects of health care practice, policy, and scholarship. We employed qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate among others how human enhancement, neuro/cognitive enhancement, brain machine interfaces, and social robot discourses cover (a) healthcare, healthcare policy, and healthcare ethics, (b) disability and (c) health consumers and how visible various assessment fields are within Neuro/Cogno/ Human enhancement and within the BMI and social robotics discourse. We found that health care, as such, is little discussed, as are health care policy and ethics; that the term consumers (but not health consumers) is used; that technology, impact and needs assessment is absent; and that the imagery of disabled people is primarily a medical one. We submit that now, at this early stage, is the time to gain a good understanding of what drives the push for the enhancement agenda and enhancement-enabling devices, and the dynamics around acceptance and diffusion of therapeutic enhancements.
Keywords: health consumer; social robotics; brain machine interface; brain computer interface; neuroenhancement; cognitive enhancement; human enhancement; healthcare; healthcare policy; healthcare ethics; health care ethics; emerging therapeutics; therapeutic enhancement; disabled people; people with disabilities; assessment health consumer; social robotics; brain machine interface; brain computer interface; neuroenhancement; cognitive enhancement; human enhancement; healthcare; healthcare policy; healthcare ethics; health care ethics; emerging therapeutics; therapeutic enhancement; disabled people; people with disabilities; assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Wolbring, G.; Diep, L.; Yumakulov, S.; Ball, N.; Leopatra, V.; Yergens, D. Emerging Therapeutic Enhancement Enabling Health Technologies and Their Discourses: What Is Discussed within the Health Domain? Healthcare 2013, 1, 20-52.

AMA Style

Wolbring G, Diep L, Yumakulov S, Ball N, Leopatra V, Yergens D. Emerging Therapeutic Enhancement Enabling Health Technologies and Their Discourses: What Is Discussed within the Health Domain? Healthcare. 2013; 1(1):20-52.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wolbring, Gregor; Diep, Lucy; Yumakulov, Sophya; Ball, Natalie; Leopatra, Verlyn; Yergens, Dean. 2013. "Emerging Therapeutic Enhancement Enabling Health Technologies and Their Discourses: What Is Discussed within the Health Domain?" Healthcare 1, no. 1: 20-52.

Healthcare EISSN 2227-9032 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert