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Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6030096

An Investigation into the Quality of Medicines in Yangon, Myanmar

1
Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Doshisha Women’s College, Kyoto 610-0395, Japan
3
Department of Food and Drug Administration, Naypyidaw 15000, Myanmar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract

Many poor-quality medicines are supplied to patients mainly in developing countries. No systematic survey on counterfeit medicines has been conducted in Myanmar since 1999. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current situation of substandard or counterfeit medicines in Myanmar. Samples of oral medicines, cefuroxime axetil (CXM), donepezil hydrochloride (DN) and omeprazole (OM), and injections, ceftriaxone sodium (CTRX), and gentamicin sulfate (GM), were collected from pharmacies, hospitals, and wholesalers in Yangon, Myanmar in 2014. Authenticity and quality were verified. There were 221 (94%) foreign medicines among 235 collected samples. Five samples of GM and 1 DN sample were not registered with the Food and Drug Administration, Myanmar. In quality analysis, 36 samples out of 177 (20.3%) did not pass quantity tests, 27 samples out of 176 (15.3%) did not pass content uniformity tests, and 23 out of 128 samples (18.0%) did not pass dissolution tests. Three of the unregistered GM samples failed in both identification and microbial assay tests. Counterfeit GM is being sold in Yangon. Also, the quality of OM is a matter of concern. Poor-quality medicines were frequently found among the products of a few manufacturers. Regular surveys to monitor counterfeit and substandard medicines in Myanmar are recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: poor quality medicine; substandard medicine; counterfeit medicine poor quality medicine; substandard medicine; counterfeit medicine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Islam, M.R.; Yoshida, N.; Kimura, K.; Uwatoko, C.; Rahman, M.S.; Kumada, S.; Endo, J.; Ito, K.; Tanimoto, T.; Zin, T.; Tsuboi, H. An Investigation into the Quality of Medicines in Yangon, Myanmar. Pharmacy 2018, 6, 96.

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