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Pharmacy 2017, 5(3), 52; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5030052

Validating the Modified Drug Adherence Work-Up (M-DRAW) Tool to Identify and Address Barriers to Medication Adherence

1
College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
2
School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
3
College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract

Barriers to medication adherence stem from multiple factors. An effective and convenient tool is needed to identify these barriers so that clinicians can provide a tailored, patient-centered consultation with patients. The Modified Drug Adherence Work-up Tool (M-DRAW) was developed as a 13-item checklist questionnaire to identify barriers to medication adherence. The response scale was a 4-point Likert scale of frequency of occurrence (1 = never to 4 = often). The checklist was accompanied by a GUIDE that provided corresponding motivational interview-based intervention strategies for each identified barrier. The current pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the M-DRAW checklist (reliability, responsiveness and discriminant validity) in patients taking one or more prescription medication(s) for chronic conditions. A cross-sectional sample of 26 patients was recruited between December 2015 and March 2016 at an academic medical center pharmacy in Southern California. A priming question that assessed self-reported adherence was used to separate participants into the control group of 17 “adherers” (65.4%), and into the intervention group of nine “unintentional and intentional non-adherers” (34.6%). Comparable baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. The M-DRAW checklist showed acceptable reliability (13 item; alpha = 0.74) for identifying factors and barriers leading to medication non-adherence. Discriminant validity of the tool and the priming question was established by the four-fold number of barriers to adherence identified within the self-selected intervention group compared to the control group (4.4 versus 1.2 barriers, p < 0.05). The current study did not investigate construct validity due to small sample size and challenges on follow-up with patients. Future testing of the tool will include construct validation. View Full-Text
Keywords: medication adherence checklist; identifying barriers to adherence; Modified Drug Adherence Work-up Tool; addressing barriers to medication adherence medication adherence checklist; identifying barriers to adherence; Modified Drug Adherence Work-up Tool; addressing barriers to medication adherence
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Lee, S.; Bae, Y.H.; Worley, M.; Law, A. Validating the Modified Drug Adherence Work-Up (M-DRAW) Tool to Identify and Address Barriers to Medication Adherence. Pharmacy 2017, 5, 52.

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