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Pharmacy 2016, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4020021

Hospital and Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice

1
Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy, 12 rue de Versigny, Villers 54600, France
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada (UGR), Campus Universitario de la Cartuja s/n, Granada 18701, Spain
3
School of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University Athens, Panepistimiou 30, Athens 10679, Greece
4
Pharmacy Faculty, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, Tartu 50411, Estonia
5
Pharmacy Faculty, University of Helsinki, Yliopistonkatu 4, P.O. Box 33-4, Helsinki 00014, Finland
6
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva cesta 7, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
7
Pharmacy Faculty, Jagiellonian University, UL, Golebia 24, Krakow 31-007, Poland
8
Pharmacy Faculty, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” Bucharest, Dionisie Lupu 37, Bucharest 020021, Romania
9
European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
10
Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Lille 2, Lille 59000, France
11
Department Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80082, Utrecht 3508 TB, The Netherlands
12
Applied Health Research Unit, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
13
Medical Faculty, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, Brussels 1090, Belgium
14
University Hospital of Leipzig, Centre for Patient Safety, Liebigstrasse 20, Leipzig 04103, Germany
15
European Association of Hospital Pharmacists, Rue Abbe Cuypers 3, Brussels 1040, Belgium
16
School of Pharmacy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
17
Pharmacy Faculty, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, Brussels 1090, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yvonne Perrie
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2086 KB, uploaded 15 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The objective of the PHAR-QA (Quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training) project was to investigate how competence-based learning could be applied to a healthcare, sectoral profession such as pharmacy. This is the first study on evaluation of competences from the pharmacists’ perspective using an improved Delphi method with a large number of respondents from all over Europe. This paper looks at the way in which hospital pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European hospital pharmacists (n = 152) ranked 68 competences for pharmacy practice of two types (personal and patient care), arranged into 13 clusters. Results were compared to those obtained from community pharmacists (n = 258). Generally, hospital and community pharmacists rank competences in a similar way. Nevertheless, differences can be detected. The higher focus of hospital pharmacists on knowledge of the different areas of science as well as on laboratory tests reflects the idea of a hospital pharmacy specialisation. The difference is also visible in the field of drug production. This is a necessary competence in hospitals with requests for drugs for rare diseases, as well as paediatric and oncologic drugs. Hospital pharmacists give entrepreneurship a lower score, but cost-effectiveness a higher one than community pharmacists. This reflects the reality of pharmacy practice where community pharmacists have to act as entrepreneurs, and hospital pharmacists are managers staying within drug budgets. The results are discussed in the light of a “hospital pharmacy” specialisation. View Full-Text
Keywords: education; specialisation; practice education; specialisation; practice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Atkinson, J.; Sánchez Pozo, A.; Rekkas, D.; Volmer, D.; Hirvonen, J.; Bozic, B.; Skowron, A.; Mircioiu, C.; Sandulovici, R.; Marcincal, A.; Koster, A.; Wilson, K.A.; van Schravendijk, C.; Frontini, R.; Price, R.; Bates, I.; De Paepe, K. Hospital and Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice. Pharmacy 2016, 4, 21.

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