Next Article in Journal
Pharmacy Simulation: A Scottish, Student-Led Perspective with Lessons for the UK and Beyond
Previous Article in Journal
Pharmacist’s Use of Screening Tools to Estimate Risk of CVD: A Review of the Literature
Pharmacy 2014, 2(1), 40-49; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2010040
Review

A Review of Vitamin D Deficiency in the Critical Care Population

1,2
, 2
 and 2,*
Received: 30 September 2013; in revised form: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 9 January 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [178 KB, updated 10 January 2014; original version uploaded 9 January 2014]
Abstract: It is well documented that a large percentage of the general population is either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Vitamin D deficiency adversely affects bone health. More recently, it has been reported that vitamin D is an important component in immune function and glycemic control Substantial data exist that demonstrate an association between vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and mortality/clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. The larger clinical trials addressing this association have demonstrated an increased odds ratio for mortality in both vitamin D insufficient and deficient patients when compared to those with sufficient vitamin D. There is also some evidence that vitamin D status worsens during critical illness without supplementation of this vitamin. Supplementation of vitamin D during critical illness of patients with vitamin D deficiency has been studied, but not in great detail. Daily supplementation of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin D does very little to improve the 25(OH)D serum concentrations in the critically ill patients with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. There is some evidence that high-dose therapy of vitamin D improves the depressed serum concentrations of this vitamin; however, there are no clinical outcome data available yet. The association between vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and clinical outcome in the critically ill appears to be important. Supplementation of vitamin D will increase the serum concentrations of this vitamin; however the optimal dose needs to be identified along with an assessment of clinical outcome.
Keywords: vitamin D; critical illness; ergocalciferol; cholecalciferol vitamin D; critical illness; ergocalciferol; cholecalciferol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Massey, K.; Dickerson, R.N.; Brown, R.O. A Review of Vitamin D Deficiency in the Critical Care Population. Pharmacy 2014, 2, 40-49.

AMA Style

Massey K, Dickerson RN, Brown RO. A Review of Vitamin D Deficiency in the Critical Care Population. Pharmacy. 2014; 2(1):40-49.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Massey, Kelly; Dickerson, Roland N.; Brown, Rex O. 2014. "A Review of Vitamin D Deficiency in the Critical Care Population." Pharmacy 2, no. 1: 40-49.


Pharmacy EISSN 2226-4787 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert