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Climate 2017, 5(2), 33; doi:10.3390/cli5020033

Classification of Rainfall Warnings Based on the TOPSIS Method

1
Atmospheric Science & Meteorological Research Center, Tehran P.O.Box 14977-16385, Iran
2
Water Engineering Department, Guilan University, Rasht P.O.Box 41889-58643, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christina Anagnostopoulou
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Extremes, the Past and the Future)
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Abstract

Extreme weather, by definition, is any unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather condition. A rainfall event that is considered normal in one region may be considered a torrent in a dry region and may cause flash flooding. Therefore, appropriate weather warnings need to be issued with respect to areas with different climates. Additionally, these alerts should be easy to understand—by clear classification—in order to apply reinforcements. Early warning levels not only depend on the intensity and duration of rainfall events, but also on the initial water stress conditions, land cover situations and degree of urbanization. This research has focused on defining different warning levels in northwest Iran using long-term precipitation data from 87 weather stations well distributed across the study area. Here, in order to determine alert levels, TOPSIS (The Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), as one of the most common methods in multi-criteria decision making, has been used. Results show that five main levels of alerts can be derived, leading to the provision of spatial maps. Further, it can be deduced that these levels are highly associated to the location of a region at different times: months/seasons. It has been observed that the issuance of a warning for precipitation should correspond with the location and time. At one location during different seasons, different alert levels would be raised corresponding to the rainfall. It was also concluded that using of fixed alert levels and extending them to larger areas without considering the seasons could be grossly misleading. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme events; TOPSIS; warning; weather; precipitation extreme events; TOPSIS; warning; weather; precipitation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zeyaeyan, S.; Fattahi, E.; Ranjbar, A.; Vazifedoust, M. Classification of Rainfall Warnings Based on the TOPSIS Method. Climate 2017, 5, 33.

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