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Climate 2017, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/cli5010011

Climatic Variability and Land Use Change in Kamala Watershed, Sindhuli District, Nepal

1
Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
2
Department of Geology, Tri-Chandra Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maoyi Huang
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Land-Use/Cover Change under a Changing Climate)
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Abstract

This study focuses on the land use change and climatic variability assessment around Kamala watershed, Sindhuli district, Nepal. The study area covers two municipalities and eight Village Development Committees (VDCs). In this paper, land use change and the climatic variability are examined. The study was focused on analyzing the changes in land use area within the period of 1995 to 2014 and how the climatic data have evolved in different meteorological stations around the watershed. The topographic maps, Google Earth images and ArcGIS 10.1 for four successive years, 1995, 2005, 2010, and 2014 were used to prepare the land use map. The trend analysis of temperature and precipitation data was conducted using Mann Kendall trend analysis and Sen’s slope method using R (3.1.2 version) software. It was found that from 1995 to 2014, the forest area, river terrace, pond, and landslide area decreased while the cropland, settlement, and orchard area increased. The temperature and precipitation trend analysis shows variability in annual, maximum, and seasonal rainfall at different stations. The maximum and minimum temperature increased in all the respective stations, but the changes are statistically insignificant. The Sen’s slope for annual rainfall at ten different stations varied between −38.9 to 4.8 mm per year. Land use change and climatic variability have been analyzed; however, further study is required to establish any relation between climatic variability and land use change. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nepal; Kamala watershed; land use; climatic variability, Google earth; ArcGIS Nepal; Kamala watershed; land use; climatic variability, Google earth; ArcGIS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Neupane, M.; Dhakal, S. Climatic Variability and Land Use Change in Kamala Watershed, Sindhuli District, Nepal. Climate 2017, 5, 11.

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