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J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2012, 1(1), 36-58; doi:10.3390/jsan1010036

Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks and Anchor Placement

*  and
Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 4 June 2012 / Published: 8 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Applications of wireless sensor network (WSN) often expect knowledge of the precise location of the nodes. Many different localization protocols have been proposed that allow nodes to derive their location rather than equipping them with dedicated localization hardware such as GPS receivers, which increases node costs. We provide a brief survey of the major approaches to software-based node localization in WSN. One class of localization protocols with good localization performance patches together relative-coordinate, local maps into a global-coordinate map. These protocols require some nodes that know their absolute coordinates, called anchor nodes. While many factors influence the node position errors, in this class of protocols, using Procrustes Analysis, the placement of the anchor nodes can significantly impact the error. Through simulation, using the Curvilinear Component Analysis (CCA-MAP) protocol as a representative protocol in this category, we show the impact of anchor node placement and propose a set of guidelines to ensure the best possible outcome, while using the smallest number of anchor nodes possible.
Keywords: WSN; localization protocols; protocol performance; anchor node placement; CCA-MAP WSN; localization protocols; protocol performance; anchor node placement; CCA-MAP
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kunz, T.; Tatham, B. Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks and Anchor Placement. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2012, 1, 36-58.

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