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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080332

Using the Spatial Knowledge of Map Users to Personalize City Maps: A Case Study with Tourists in Madrid, Spain

1
Department of Surveying and Cartography Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Geological Institute, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract

The aim of personalized maps is to help individual users to read maps and focus on the most task-relevant information. Several approaches have been suggested to develop personalized maps for cities, but few consider the spatial knowledge of its users. We propose the design of “cognitively-aware” personalized maps, which take into account the previous experience of users in the city and how the urban space is configured in their minds. Our aim is to facilitate users’ mental links between maps and city places, stimulating users to recall features of the urban space and to assimilate new spatial knowledge. To achieve this goal, we propose the personalization of maps through a map design process based on user modeling and on inferring personalization guidelines from hand-drawn sketches of urban spaces. We applied this process in an experiment with tourists in Madrid, Spain. We categorized the participants into three types of tourists—“Guided”, “Explorer”, and “Conditioned”—according to individual and contextual factors that can influence their spatial knowledge of the city. We also extracted design guidelines from tourists’ sketches and developed map prototypes. The empirical results seem to be promising for developing personalized city maps that could be produced on-the-fly in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: personalized maps; spatial knowledge; cognitive maps; user modeling; map design; travel experience personalized maps; spatial knowledge; cognitive maps; user modeling; map design; travel experience
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Manrique-Sancho, M.-T.; Avelar, S.; Iturrioz-Aguirre, T.; Manso-Callejo, M.-Á. Using the Spatial Knowledge of Map Users to Personalize City Maps: A Case Study with Tourists in Madrid, Spain. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 332.

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