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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050182

Semi-Supervised Ground-to-Aerial Adaptation with Heterogeneous Features Learning for Scene Classification

College of Electronic Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
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Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract

Currently, huge quantities of remote sensing images (RSIs) are becoming available. Nevertheless, the scarcity of labeled samples hinders the semantic understanding of RSIs. Fortunately, many ground-level image datasets with detailed semantic annotations have been collected in the vision community. In this paper, we attempt to exploit the abundant labeled ground-level images to build discriminative models for overhead-view RSI classification. However, images from the ground-level and overhead view are represented by heterogeneous features with different distributions; how to effectively combine multiple features and reduce the mismatch of distributions are two key problems in this scene-model transfer task. Specifically, a semi-supervised manifold-regularized multiple-kernel-learning (SMRMKL) algorithm is proposed for solving these problems. We employ multiple kernels over several features to learn an optimal combined model automatically. Multi-kernel Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MK-MMD) is utilized to measure the data mismatch. To make use of unlabeled target samples, a manifold regularized semi-supervised learning process is incorporated into our framework. Extensive experimental results on both cross-view and aerial-to-satellite scene datasets demonstrate that: (1) SMRMKL has an appealing extension ability to effectively fuse different types of visual features; and (2) manifold regularization can improve the adaptation performance by utilizing unlabeled target samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; scene classification; heterogeneous domain adaptation; cross-view; multiple kernel learning remote sensing; scene classification; heterogeneous domain adaptation; cross-view; multiple kernel learning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Deng, Z.; Sun, H.; Zhou, S. Semi-Supervised Ground-to-Aerial Adaptation with Heterogeneous Features Learning for Scene Classification. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 182.

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