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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(9), 290; doi:10.3390/ijgi6090290

Selecting the Best Band Ratio to Estimate Chlorophyll-a Concentration in a Tropical Freshwater Lake Using Sentinel 2A Images from a Case Study of Lake Ba Be (Northern Vietnam)

1
Faculty of Geology, VNU University of Science, 334, Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
2
Department of Urban Management, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura C1-2-215, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
3
Key Laboratory of Geoenvironment and Climate Change Response, VNU University of Science, 334, Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract

This study aims to develop a method to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) in tropical freshwater lake waters using in situ data of Chla, water reflectance, and concurrent Sentinel 2A MSI imagery (S2A) over Lake Ba Be, a Ramsar site and the largest natural freshwater lake in Vietnam. Data from 30 surveyed sampling sites over the lake water in June 2016 and May 2017 demonstrated the appropriateness of S2A green-red band ratio (band 3 versus band 4) for estimating Chla. This was shown through a strong correlation of corresponded field measured reflectance ratio with Chla by an exponential curve (r2 = 0.68; the mean standard error of the estimates corresponding to 5% of the mean value of in situ Chla). The small error between in situ Chla, and estimated Chla from S2A acquired concurrently, confirmed the S2A green-red band ratio as the most suitable option for monitoring Chla in Lake Ba Be water. Resultant Chla distribution maps over time described a partially-seasonal pattern and also displayed the spatial dynamic of Chla in the lake. This allows a better understanding of the lake’s limnological processes to be developed and provides an insight into the factors that affect lake water quality. The results also confirmed the potential of S2A to be used as a free tool for lake monitoring and research due to high spatial resolution data (10 m pixel size). View Full-Text
Keywords: limnology; water quality; remote sensing; algae blooms; algorithms limnology; water quality; remote sensing; algae blooms; algorithms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, N.T.T.; Thao, N.T.P.; Koike, K.; Nhuan, M.T. Selecting the Best Band Ratio to Estimate Chlorophyll-a Concentration in a Tropical Freshwater Lake Using Sentinel 2A Images from a Case Study of Lake Ba Be (Northern Vietnam). ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 290.

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