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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(4), 107; doi:10.3390/ijgi6040107

Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Bean Crop in Brazil over the Period 1990–2013

1
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Parque Estação Biológica, PqEB s/no. Brasília DF 70770-901, Caixa Postal 8605, Brazil
2
Departamento de Geografia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Asa Norte, Brasília DF 70910-900, Brazil
3
Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Asa Norte, Brasília DF CEP 70910-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tao Cheng, Genong Yu and Wolfgang Kainz
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 19 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
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Abstract

The understanding of spatial dependence and distribution of agricultural production factors is a key issue for the territorial planning and regional development. This study evaluates the spatial-temporal dynamics of bean crops in Brazil over the period 1990–2013. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the staple foods for the Brazilian population, with nationwide production and cultivated mostly by family farmers. The analyzed variables of this crop included harvested area, produced quantity, and average crop yield. We investigated spatial autocorrelations using the Global and Local Moran Index. The global spatial autocorrelation statistics demonstrated a general spatial dependence of bean production over Brazil, while the local spatial autocorrelation statistics detect statistically significant zones of high and low bean-production attributes. Maps of growth and acceleration rate of the variables were constructed, showing the areas that increased, decreased, or stagnated during the time series. The results showed a considerable reduction of the bean harvested area, but there were significant increases in produced quantity and average crop yield. Results showed distinct and significant patterns of bean-production variables in Brazilian territory over the different years. Regional differences and peculiarities are evident, emphasizing the need for directing investments to agricultural research and public policy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spatial dependence; Autocorrelation; Cross-tabulation; Phaseolus vulgaris L. Spatial dependence; Autocorrelation; Cross-tabulation; Phaseolus vulgaris L.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Clemente, A.M.; Júnior, O.A.C.; Guimarães, R.F.; McManus, C.; Turazi, C.M.V.; Hermuche, P.M. Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Bean Crop in Brazil over the Period 1990–2013. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 107.

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