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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(5), 64; doi:10.3390/ijgi5050064

Investigating the Feasibility of Geo-Tagged Photographs as Sources of Land Cover Input Data

1
Hellenic Military Academy, Leof. Varis-Koropiou, 16673 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Mathematics, University of Coimbra—INESC Coimbra, Coimbra, Rua Antero de Quental, n° 199 Coimbra, Portugal
3
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria
4
NOVA IMS, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), 1070-312 Lisboa, Portugal
5
GIScience Research Group, Institute of Geography, University of Heidelberg, Berliner Strasse 48, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
6
Department of Planning and Development, Aalborg University Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, DK-2450 Copenhagen, Denmark
7
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), Via Po, 14 00198 Roma, Italy
8
Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Como Campus, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como, Italy
9
School of Geography, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD Nottingham, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexander Zipf, David Jonietz and Wolfgang Kainz
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volunteered Geographic Information)
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Abstract

Geo-tagged photographs are used increasingly as a source of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), which could potentially be used for land use and land cover applications. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the feasibility of using this source of spatial information for three use cases related to land cover: Calibration, validation and verification. We first provide an inventory of the metadata that are collected with geo-tagged photographs and then consider what elements would be essential, desirable, or unnecessary for the aforementioned use cases. Geo-tagged photographs were then extracted from Flickr, Panoramio and Geograph for an area of London, UK, and classified based on their usefulness for land cover mapping including an analysis of the accompanying metadata. Finally, we discuss protocols for geo-tagged photographs for use of VGI in relation to land cover applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: geo-tagged photographs; Volunteered Geographic Information; Flickr; Panoramio; Geograph; land cover; land use; fitness-for-use geo-tagged photographs; Volunteered Geographic Information; Flickr; Panoramio; Geograph; land cover; land use; fitness-for-use
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Antoniou, V.; Fonte, C.C.; See, L.; Estima, J.; Arsanjani, J.J.; Lupia, F.; Minghini, M.; Foody, G.; Fritz, S. Investigating the Feasibility of Geo-Tagged Photographs as Sources of Land Cover Input Data. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 64.

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