ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(1), 237-255; doi:10.3390/ijgi2010237

Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis of Congenital Malformations (CM) in Israel, 2000–2006

1 Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel 2 Department of Management, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel 3 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel 4 Faculty of Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, and Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Rambam Medical Center, P.O. Box 9602, Haifa 31096, Israel 5 Department of Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beersheba 84105, Israel 6 Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2013; in revised form: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
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Abstract: Congenital Malformations (CM) impose a heavy burden on families and society. Identification of spatial patterns of CM is useful for understanding the epidemiology of this public health issue. In Israel, about 1,000,000 births and 25,000 CM cases at 37 groups were geocoded during 2000–2006. These were geo-analyzed using global-Moran’s-I statistics. Eight groups demonstrated geospatial heterogeneity and were further analyzed at both the census tract (Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) and hot spot analyses) and street levels (spatial scan statistics with two population threshold sizes). The positional definition of results is further discussed in relevance to possible exposure to teratogenic sources in the region. Limitations of data and methods used are presented as well.
Keywords: birth defects; congenital malformations; epidemiology; spatial clusters/statistics; LISA; hot spot; SaTScan

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MDPI and ACS Style

Agay-Shay, K.; Amitai, Y.; Peretz, C.; Linn, S.; Friger, M.; Peled, A. Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis of Congenital Malformations (CM) in Israel, 2000–2006. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2, 237-255.

AMA Style

Agay-Shay K, Amitai Y, Peretz C, Linn S, Friger M, Peled A. Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis of Congenital Malformations (CM) in Israel, 2000–2006. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2013; 2(1):237-255.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Agay-Shay, Keren; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava; Linn, Shai; Friger, Michael; Peled, Ammatzia. 2013. "Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis of Congenital Malformations (CM) in Israel, 2000–2006." ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2, no. 1: 237-255.

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