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Robotics 2015, 4(1), 63-102; doi:10.3390/robotics4010063

A Computational Model of Human-Robot Spatial Interactions Based on a Qualitative Trajectory Calculus

1
School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, LN6 7TS Lincoln, UK
2
Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Clifton, BS8 1UB Bristol, UK
3
School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12A Priory Road, Clifton, BS8 1TU Bristol, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huosheng Hu
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Representations and Reasoning for Robotics)
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Abstract

In this paper we propose a probabilistic sequential model of Human-Robot Spatial Interaction (HRSI) using a well-established Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTC) to encode HRSI between a human and a mobile robot in a meaningful, tractable, and systematic manner. Our key contribution is to utilise QTC as a state descriptor and model HRSI as a probabilistic sequence of such states. Apart from the sole direction of movements of human and robot modelled by QTC, attributes of HRSI like proxemics and velocity profiles play vital roles for the modelling and generation of HRSI behaviour. In this paper, we particularly present how the concept of proxemics can be embedded in QTC to facilitate richer models. To facilitate reasoning on HRSI with qualitative representations, we show how we can combine the representational power of QTC with the concept of proxemics in a concise framework, enriching our probabilistic representation by implicitly modelling distances. We show the appropriateness of our sequential model of QTC by encoding different HRSI behaviours observed in two spatial interaction experiments. We classify these encounters, creating a comparative measurement, showing the representational capabilities of the model. View Full-Text
Keywords: qualitative trajectory calculus; human-robot spatial interaction; qualitative spatial relations; probabilistic sequential models; proxemics qualitative trajectory calculus; human-robot spatial interaction; qualitative spatial relations; probabilistic sequential models; proxemics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dondrup, C.; Bellotto, N.; Hanheide, M.; Eder, K.; Leonards, U. A Computational Model of Human-Robot Spatial Interactions Based on a Qualitative Trajectory Calculus. Robotics 2015, 4, 63-102.

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