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Universe 2017, 3(1), 11; doi:10.3390/universe3010011

Nonlinear Gravitational Waves as Dark Energy in Warped Spacetimes

Department of Physics, Asfyon and University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1012WX, The Netherlands
Academic Editors: Mariusz P. Dąbrowski, Manuel Krämer and Vincenzo Salzano
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Varying Constants and Fundamental Cosmology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [277 KB, uploaded 15 February 2017]

Abstract

We find an azimuthal-angle dependent approximate wave like solution to second order on a warped five-dimensional manifold with a self-gravitating U(1) scalar gauge field (cosmic string) on the brane using the multiple-scale method. The spectrum of the several orders of approximation show maxima of the energy distribution dependent on the azimuthal-angle and the winding numbers of the subsequent orders of the scalar field. This breakup of the quantized flux quanta does not lead to instability of the asymptotic wavelike solution due to the suppression of the n-dependency in the energy momentum tensor components by the warp factor. This effect is triggered by the contribution of the five dimensional Weyl tensor on the brane. This contribution can be understood as dark energy and can trigger the self-acceleration of the universe without the need of a cosmological constant. There is a striking relation between the symmetry breaking of the Higgs field described by the winding number and the SO(2) breaking of the axially symmetric configuration into a discrete subgroup of rotations of about 180 . The discrete sequence of non-axially symmetric deviations, cancelled by the emission of gravitational waves in order to restore the SO(2) symmetry, triggers the pressure T z z for discrete values of the azimuthal-angle. There could be a possible relation between the recently discovered angle-preferences of polarization axes of quasars on large scales and our theoretical predicted angle-dependency and this could be evidence for the existence of cosmic strings. Careful comparison of this spectrum of extremal values of the first and second order φ-dependency and the distribution of the alignment of the quasar polarizations is necessary. This can be accomplished when more observational data become available. It turns out that, for late time, the vacuum 5D spacetime is conformally invariant if the warp factor fulfils the equation of a vibrating “drum”, describing standing normal modes of the brane. View Full-Text
Keywords: cosmic strings; warped brane world models; U(1) scalar-gauge field; multiple-scale analysis; nonlinear gravitational waves; quasar polarization cosmic strings; warped brane world models; U(1) scalar-gauge field; multiple-scale analysis; nonlinear gravitational waves; quasar polarization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Slagter, R.J. Nonlinear Gravitational Waves as Dark Energy in Warped Spacetimes. Universe 2017, 3, 11.

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