Next Article in Journal
New Constraints on Spatial Variations of the Fine Structure Constant from Clusters of Galaxies
Next Article in Special Issue
Quark Deconfinement in Rotating Neutron Stars
Previous Article in Journal
The Problem of Embedded Eigenvalues for the Dirac Equation in the Schwarzschild Black Hole Metric
Previous Article in Special Issue
World-Line Formalism: Non-Perturbative Applications
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Universe 2016, 2(4), 32;

Baryon Number Transfer Could Delay Quark–Hadron Transition in Cosmology

The National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF)— Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Departmnet of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, Trieste 34143, Italy
Department of Physics G. Occhialini, Milano-Bicocca University, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20126, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roman Pasechnik, José Eliel Camargo-Molina and António Pestana Morais
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [370 KB, uploaded 13 December 2016]   |  


In the early Universe, strongly interacting matter was a quark–gluon plasma. Both lattice computations and heavy ion collision experiments, however, tell us that, in the absence of chemical potentials, no plasma survives at T < 150 MeV. The cosmological Quark–Hadron transition, however, seems to have been a crossover; cosmological consequences envisaged when it was believed to be a phase transition no longer hold. In this paper, we discuss whether even a crossover transition can leave an imprint that cosmological observations can seek or, vice versa, if there are questions cosmology should address to QCD specialists. In particular, we argue that it is still unclear how baryons (not hadrons) could form at the cosmological transition. A critical role should be played by diquark states, whose abundance in the early plasma needs to be accurately evaluated. We estimate that, if the number of quarks belonging to a diquark state, at the beginning of the cosmological transition, is < 1 : 10 6 , its dynamics could be modified by the process of B-transfer from plasma to hadrons. In turn, by assuming B-transfer to cause just mild perturbations and, in particular, no entropy input, we study the deviations from the tracking regime, in the frame of SCDEW models. We find that, in some cases, residual deviations could propagate down to primeval nuclesynthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: cosmology; Quark–Hadron transition; dark matter; dark energy; cosmological inflation cosmology; Quark–Hadron transition; dark matter; dark energy; cosmological inflation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bonometto, S.A.; Mainini, R. Baryon Number Transfer Could Delay Quark–Hadron Transition in Cosmology. Universe 2016, 2, 32.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Universe EISSN 2218-1997 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top