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Universe 2016, 2(4), 25; doi:10.3390/universe2040025

On the Effect of the Cosmological Expansion on the Gravitational Lensing by a Point Mass

Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910, Brazil
Academic Editors: Lorenzo Iorio and Elias C. Vagenas
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract

We analyse the effect of the cosmological expansion on the deflection of light caused by a point mass, adopting the McVittie metric as the geometrical description of a point-like lens embedded in an expanding universe. In the case of a generic, non-constant Hubble parameter, H, we derive and approximately solve the null geodesic equations, finding an expression for the bending angle δ, which we expand in powers of the mass-to-closest approach distance ratio and of the impact parameter-to-lens distance ratio. It turns out that the leading order of the aforementioned expansion is the same as the one calculated for the Schwarzschild metric and that cosmological corrections contribute to δ only at sub-dominant orders. We explicitly calculate these cosmological corrections for the case of the H constant and find that they provide a correction of order 10−11 on the lens mass estimate. View Full-Text
Keywords: McVittie metric; gravitational lensing; cosmology McVittie metric; gravitational lensing; cosmology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Piattella, O.F. On the Effect of the Cosmological Expansion on the Gravitational Lensing by a Point Mass. Universe 2016, 2, 25.

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