Intranasal Delivery of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Migraine Therapy
AbstractObjective: The objective of the research was to formulate and evaluate sumatriptan succinate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for migraine therapy in order to improve its therapeutic effect and reduce dosing frequency. Material and Methods: The Taguchi method design of experiments (L9 orthogonal array) was applied to obtain the optimized formulation. The sumatriptan succinate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared by ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions (TPP) and Tween 80 as surfactant. Results: The CNPs had a mean size of 306.8 ± 3.9 nm, a zeta potential of +28.79 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 75.4 ± 1.1%. The in vitro drug release of chitosan nanoparticles was evaluated in phosphate buffer saline pH 5.5 using goat nasal mucosa and found to be 76.7 ± 1.3% within 28 hours. Discussion: The release of the drug from the nanoparticles was anomalous, showing non-Fickian diffusion indicating that drug release is controlled by more than one process i.e. the superposition of both phenomena, a diffusion-controlled as well as a swelling-controlled release. This is clearly due to the characteristics of chitosan which easily dissolves at low pH, thus a nasal pH range of 5.5 ± 0.5 supports it very well. The mechanism of pH-sensitive swelling involves protonation of the amine groups of chitosan at low pH. This protonation leads to chain repulsion, diffusion of protons and counter ions together with water inside the gel, and the dissociation of secondary interactions. Conclusion: The results suggest that sumatriptan succinate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles are the most suitable mode of drug delivery for promising therapeutic action.
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GULATI, N.; NAGAICH, U.; SARAF, S.A. Intranasal Delivery of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Migraine Therapy. Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81, 843-854.
GULATI N, NAGAICH U, SARAF SA. Intranasal Delivery of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Migraine Therapy. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2013; 81(3):843-854.Chicago/Turabian Style
GULATI, Neha; NAGAICH, Upendra; SARAF, Shubhini A. 2013. "Intranasal Delivery of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Migraine Therapy." Sci. Pharm. 81, no. 3: 843-854.