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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2015). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).
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Sci. Pharm. 2012, 80(1), 1-28; (registering DOI)

Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies, Ujjain, M. P., India
Division of Translational Research, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 13 December 2011 / Published: 13 December 2011
PDF [329 KB, uploaded 29 September 2016]


The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.
Keywords: Drug delivery; Translational research; Transdermal therapeutic system; Iontophoresis Drug delivery; Translational research; Transdermal therapeutic system; Iontophoresis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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DHOTE, V.; BHATNAGAR, P.; MISHRA, P.K.; MAHAJAN, S.C.; MISHRA, D.K. Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System. Sci. Pharm. 2012, 80, 1-28.

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