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Systems 2014, 2(2), 168-185; doi:10.3390/systems2020168

Allometric Relations and Scaling Laws for the Cardiovascular System of Mammals

United States Naval Academy, 590 Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402, USA
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allometric Scaling)
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The modeling of the cardiovascular system of mammals is discussed within the framework of governing allometric relations and related scaling laws for mammals. An earlier theory of the writer for resting-state cardiovascular function is reviewed and standard solutions discussed for reciprocal quarter-power relations for heart rate and cardiac output per unit body mass. Variation in the basic cardiac process controlling heart beat is considered and shown to allow alternate governing relations. Results have potential application in explaining deviations from the noted quarter-power relations. The work thus indicates that the cardiovascular systems of all mammals are designed according to the same general theory and, accordingly, that it provides a quantitative means to extrapolate measurements of cardiovascular form and function from small mammals to the human. Various illustrations are included. Work described here also indicates that the basic scaling laws from the theory apply to children and adults, with important applications such as the extrapolation of therapeutic drug dosage requirements from adults to children.
Keywords: cardiovascular system; mammals; allometric relations; scaling laws cardiovascular system; mammals; allometric relations; scaling laws
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Dawson, T.H. Allometric Relations and Scaling Laws for the Cardiovascular System of Mammals. Systems 2014, 2, 168-185.

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