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Biology 2012, 1(1), 18-42; doi:10.3390/biology1010018

The Biology of Autoimmune Response in the Scurfy Mice that Lack the CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cells

1
Center for Immunity, Inflammation and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
2
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
5
Academia Sinica, Nankang District, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
6
Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2012 / Revised: 22 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 4 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Abstract

Due to a mutation in the Foxp3 transcription factor, Scurfy mice lack regulatory T-cells that maintain self-tolerance of the immune system. They develop multi-organ inflammation (MOI) and die around four weeks old. The affected organs are skin, tail, lungs and liver. In humans, endocrine and gastrointestinal inflammation are also observed, hence the disease is termed IPEX (Immunodysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome. The three week period of fatal MOI offers a useful autoimmune model in which the controls by genetics, T-cell subsets, cytokines, and effector mechanisms could be efficiently investigated. In this report, we will review published work, summarize our recent studies of Scurfy double mutants lacking specific autoimmune-related genes, discuss the cellular and cytokine controls by these genes on MOI, the organ-specificities of the MOI controlled by environments, and the effector mechanisms regulated by specific Th cytokines, including several newly identified control mechanisms for organ-specific autoimmune response. View Full-Text
Keywords: Scurfy mice; regulatory T-cells; multi-organ inflammation; genetic control of MOI Scurfy mice; regulatory T-cells; multi-organ inflammation; genetic control of MOI
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ju, S.-T.; Sharma, R.; Gaskin, F.; Kung, J.T.; Fu, S.M. The Biology of Autoimmune Response in the Scurfy Mice that Lack the CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cells. Biology 2012, 1, 18-42.

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