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Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 495-520; doi:10.3390/antibiotics4040495

Core Steps of Membrane-Bound Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis: Recent Advances, Insight and Opportunities

School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Waldemar Vollmer
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 3 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Cell Wall as Antimicrobial Target)
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Abstract

We are entering an era where the efficacy of current antibiotics is declining, due to the development and widespread dispersion of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. These factors highlight the need for novel antimicrobial discovery. A large number of antimicrobial natural products elicit their effect by directly targeting discrete areas of peptidoglycan metabolism. Many such natural products bind directly to the essential cell wall precursor Lipid II and its metabolites, i.e., preventing the utlisation of vital substrates by direct binding rather than inhibiting the metabolising enzymes themselves. Concurrently, there has been an increase in the knowledge surrounding the proteins essential to the metabolism of Lipid II at and across the cytoplasmic membrane. In this review, we draw these elements together and look to future antimicrobial opportunities in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptidoglycan; Lipid I; Lipid II; MraY; MurG; Lipid II flippase; FtsW; MurJ; undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatases peptidoglycan; Lipid I; Lipid II; MraY; MurG; Lipid II flippase; FtsW; MurJ; undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Teo, A.C.K.; Roper, D.I. Core Steps of Membrane-Bound Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis: Recent Advances, Insight and Opportunities. Antibiotics 2015, 4, 495-520.

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