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Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 21; doi:10.3390/bios6020021

Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection

1
Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel 4056, Switzerland
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Basel 4056, Switzerland
3
Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232, Switzerland
4
Swiss Nanoscience Institute, University of Basel, Basel 4056, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeff D. Newman
Received: 6 March 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2095 KB, uploaded 6 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on silicon (Si) nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs) have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical sensing; nanoribbons; sodium; fluoride; gold; ion-sensitive field-effect transistors; chemFETs chemical sensing; nanoribbons; sodium; fluoride; gold; ion-sensitive field-effect transistors; chemFETs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stoop, R.L.; Wipf, M.; Müller, S.; Bedner, K.; Wright, I.A.; Martin, C.J.; Constable, E.C.; Fanget, A.; Schönenberger, C.; Calame, M. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection. Biosensors 2016, 6, 21.

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