- freely available
Information 2014, 5(1), 120-133; doi:10.3390/info5010120
Published: 18 February 2014
Abstract: A mathematical model of electroslag remelting (ESR) process is established based on its technical features and dynamic characteristics. A new multivariable self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller tuned optimally by an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm is proposed to control the two-input/two-output (TITO) ESR process. An adaptive chaotic migration mutation operator is used to tackle the particles trapped in the clustering field in order to enhance the diversity of the particles in the population, prevent premature convergence and improve the search efficiency of PSO algorithm. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control method. The new method can overcome dynamic working conditions and coupling features of the system in a wide range, and it has strong robustness and adaptability.
The electroslag remelting (ESR) process is an advanced smelting method to make purified steels based on rudiment steel in order to reduce impurity and get the high-quality steel which is defined by: uniformity, density and crystal in vertical . The main purpose of the ESR process is to purify metal and get the ingot with uniform density crystallization. The steel undergoing the ESR process has many advantages, such as high-purity, lower sulfur and inclusion of nonmetal, smooth surface of the ingot, the uniform density crystallization and the uniform metal structure and chemical composition [2,3].
From the control point of view, the ESR process is a typical complex controlled object, which has multi-variable, distributed parameters, nonlinear and strong coupling features. During the early stage of research, the normal control methods include voltage swings, constant current, constant voltage and descending power. The voltage swing control method is adopted to adjust the voltage swing amplitude in order to control the electrode movements and maintain the stability of slag resistance . The reference  mainly discusses the key technology of melting speed control. The mathematical model of the time-variant system does not analyse the fundamental reasons causing voltage fluctuation at the expense of the current control accuracy in exchange for the smoothly control of the voltage swing. With the development of the control theory and modern optimization algorithm, the intelligent control strategies, which do not strictly depend on a mathematical model, are used in the ESR process. The reference  analyzes the ESR model, adopts the cooperative control method for the melting rate and position of remelting electrodes, whose parameters are optimized by the improved genetic algorithm. The reference  proposes an intelligent control method for the ESR process, which combines a variable frequency drive control strategy with the artificial neural network theory. The experimental results show that the proposed control strategy improves the accuracy and intelligence level of the ESR furnace, stables the remelting current.
The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is widely used in many industrial processes because it is simple in structure, and has good robustness and high reliability. The self-tuning and optimization of the PID controller parameters is a very important research field [8,9]. With the rapid development of swarm intelligent theory, many PID controller parameters self-tuning methods based on the swarm intelligent theory appeared, such as genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm algorithm (PSO), etc. [10,11,12,13,14]. Genetic algorithm adopts the duplication, crossover and mutation operators, whose performance has a larger dependence on parameters. On the other hand, PSO will easily lead to the local optima and produce early-maturation phenomena. According to dynamic characteristics of the ESR process, this paper establishes the mathematical model of the ESR process, and puts forward a kind of multivariable self-setting PID control strategy based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control method is feasible and effective.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the technique flowchart and mathematics model of the ESR process are introduced. In Section 3, the self-tuning of multivariable PID controller parameters based on IPSO is summarized. In Section 4, experiment and simulation results are introduced in details. Finally, the conclusion constitutes the last part.
2. Technique Flowchart and Mathematics Model of ESR Process
2.1. Technique Flowchart
Electroslag furnace is a complex controlled object, whose production technique is more complex than other steelmaking methods [15,16]. There is still no good mathematical model to describe the ESR process. In order to ensure the stability of the ESR process and quality of the remelting metal, the reasonable technique parameters must be chosen. The technique flowchart of electroslag furnace is described in the Figure 1.
The operation flow of the ESR process is illustrated as follows: Add slag→Start arc→Melting slag→Casting→Feeding→Remelting end→Thermal insulation→Finished product. The technique of electroslag furnace may be divided into four stages: melting slag stage, exchange electrodes stage, casting stage and feeding stage.
Melting slag stage. It includes an opening stage to make slag and slag melting with low power by using the lower voltage and current. Because the slag pool has not been formed, there will be large current fluctuations. When the slag pool is formed, the current becomes stable. The slag will be melted until all slag materials have been added. From now on, slag melting will be put under a high power to melt all slag and keep a certain temperature.
Exchange electrodes. They will be finished by the movement of the robot arm, which should be finished in no more than five minutes to avoid the solidification of the melted electroslag. After the completion of the electrode exchange, because there will large heat absorption after the cold metal electrodes are inserted into the electroslag pool, the normal casting should not begin. To achieve the melting speed required by the steel casting technique, the current set-point must be increased.
Casting stage. The electrode melting velocity in the normal casting stage is the key factor of deciding the solidification of steel ingot. So the biggest allowed electrode melting velocity of the electroslag furnace may be concluded in accord with the related formulas.
Feeding stage. The main function of the feeding stage is to remove the pit on the top of the ingot caused by the solidification.
2.2. Mathematic Model
The main circuit of the electroslag furnace consists of a power supply whose voltage and current can be adjusted, a consumable electrode, electroslag, crystallizer, ingot casting and bilge chest. The major loop and its equivalent circuit are shown in the Figure 2.
The relationship between the voltage and current of electroslag furnace’s major loop is described as follows :
The melting velocity of the electroslag furnace is mainly decided by the voltage and current. Its relationship is described as follows:
On the premise of the controlled object under steady working conditions, the system transfer functional is decided by the step response. By imposing the step disturbance to the secondary voltage V2 and the melting current I2 respectively, the step response curve of the excitation voltage ΔV and the melting velocity v are calculated. On the basis of considering the variable dimension, the transfer function matrix of the electroslag furnace under the given working conditions obtained by the curve fitting method is illustrated as follows:
3. Self-Tuning of Multivariable PID Controller Parameters Based on IPSO
3.1. Multivariable PID Control Strategy
The PID controller is a regulator in accordance with the linear combination of the proportion, differential and integral of the error, which can be described as:
According to the dynamic characteristics of ESR process, the paper puts forward a self-tuning multivariable PID control strategy optimized by the IPSO, whose structure is shown in Figure 3. The system is formed by the PID controller, the diagonal matrix decoupling module and the controlled object. The structure of ESR process multi-variable PID controller which this paper proposed is shown in Figure 3. It uses diagonal matrix decoupling control to eliminate the coupling of the original coupling system between each channel, and improve particle swarm algorithm to optimize control parameters of PID controller.
3.2. Diagonal Matrix Decoupling
According the above discussion, the system model can be represented as:
In order to realize the decoupling control of ESR process, the diagonal matrix decoupling method is adopted, which is described as follows:
Thus, Equations (10) and (11) are obtained based on the transfer functions of the controlled object and the diagonal matrix decoupling strategy.
Finally, the transfer functions after decoupling disposal of ESR process are calculated as follows:
So the system transfer function matrix after decoupling can be expressed as:
After decoupling, the original coupling system is decomposed into two independent, insusceptible single-input/single-output (SISO) control channels (System 1 and System 2) shown in Equations (15) and (16).
The hybrid PSO algorithm is utilized to optimize the parameters of two PID controllers in order to obtain the better control performances. The design of the PID controller is actually a multidimensional function optimization problem in essence, so the improved PSO algorithm adopts real value coding pattern. The multi-variable PID controller of ESR process can be directly coded as follows.
The optimization object of the PID Controller parameters is to make the system overall control deviation tend to zero, and have a fast response speed and smaller overshoot. So the four error integral criterions described as follows are used to evaluate the control effect.
Integral of squared error (ISE)
Integral of time squared error (ITSE)
Integral of absolute error (IAE)
Integral of time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE)
3.3. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
Particle swarm optimization algorithm [17,18,19] is a kind of swarm intelligence evolution computing technology originating from the flock foraging behavior. Usually, a particle swarm is composed of M particles and the position of these particles Xi (i = 1,2,···,M) stands for the potential solutions in the D dimension. The possibility of the potential better solution is larger in the neighborhood space of good particles. These particles fly with a speed Vi according to the flight experiences of the individuals and groups, which is adjusted dynamically in D search space. The best position which each particle experiences indicates pbest [i], and the best particle position in the whole swarm indicates gbest [g]. The velocity and position of the particles are adjusted according to the following formula.
In the course of the evolution of the flight speed Vi, the inertia weight w is introduced to increase the particle’s motion inertia, expand the search space and improve the convergence of the discussed PSO algorithm. The PSO algorithm with inertia weights is described as follows:
3.4. Adaptive Chaotic Migration Mutation Operator
The genetic distance in GA is introduced to PSO algorithm, in which the particles diversity in the particle swarm is determined by the particle genetic distance. On the basis of this, a special mutation operation (adaptive chaotic migration mutation operator) is utilized to process the particles sinking into gathered area [20,21].
When the position of the particle i is Xid(t) in the t generation and the global optimal value of particle swarm is Pgd(t), the particle genetic distance relative to the Pgd(t) is defined as follows:
All particles, whose genetic distance is less than the average genetic distance, consist of a new particle group Sopt, in which the average distance of particles in new swarm is defined as σopt (t):
Before the mutation operation, the particle swarm Sopt need to be carried out the chaos optimization. According to the Logistic mapping principle, a chaos optimization system is realized based on the following equation:
Suppose the disturbance quantity of a chaotic system is Δx = (Δx1, Δx2, … , Δxn) and the disturbance range is [−β,β]. Each component of zk is carried to the disturbance range:
The former |Sopt| with minimum fitness replaces the original particle swarm Sopt. Then the migration mutation operation is carried out based on the following rules.
3.5. Algorithmic Procedure
Initialization population. Initialize the population size, random positions, particle velocities, inertia weights, learning factor, collection valve value, chaos perturbation range [−β,β], scale factor F, maximum iteration number, the particle’s position range [−xmax,xmax] and the particle flight speed range [−vmax,vmax].Figure 4. Algorithm flowchart.
Calculate the fitness of each particle, and determine the optimal value Pid(t) of each particle and the optimal value Pgd(t) of the whole particle swarm.
According to Equations (19) and (20), the particle’s position and velocity are updated. Then update the individual optimal value Pid(t) of the particle and the optimal values Pgd(t) of particle swarm.
Equations (21)–(23) are utilized to calculate the average distance σopt (t) between particles. Then compare σopt (t) and σ*. If σopt (t) > σ*, go to step 5. If σopt (t) ≤ σ*, judge whether the optimal termination condition is satisfied or not. If it is met, the optimization process is finished and output the optimal results. Otherwise, return to step 2.
According to Equations (24) and (25), the chaotic optimization is processed. Extract the former |Sopt| particle with minimum fitness to take the place of the individuals in the original particle swarm Sopt. According to Equations (26) and (27), the chaotic migration mutation operation is carried out. After the mutation operation, return to step 2.
4. Simulation Experiments
4.1. Input-Output Characteristics of ESR Process
Firstly, the simulation experiments are carried out to observe the control results before decoupling, where two input signals X1 and X2 are chosen. The coupling response curves with the input signal X1 = 1 and X2 = 0 are shown in Figure 5. The coupling response curves with the input signal X2 = 1 and X1 = 0 are shown in Figure 6.
4.2. PID Controller Optimized by IPSO Algorithm
This paper utilizes the PID diagonal matrix decoupling controller to control the ESR process. The original coupling control system is divided into two independent control loops. The parameters of the PID controller are optimized by the proposed hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm on two independent control channels. The paper contrasts the simulation control performances of Z-N method and four different kinds of fitness functions (ISE, IAE, ITAE and ITSE). The simulation results are shown in Figure 7 by adopting the proposed decoupling control strategy on the ESR process.
The optimized PID controller parameters are shown in Table 1. The statistical datum of the system performance (overshoot, rising time and adjusting time) are shown in Table 2. By carrying out the comparison of simulation results and performance index with the above discussed the equivalent decoupling controlled models in various fitness functions, it can be seen that the control effect under ITAE fitness function is optimal among other fitness functions, which is suitable to realize the decoupling control of the ESR process.
|Table 1. Tuned parameters of PID controllers.|
|PID Parameters||System 1||System 2|
|Table 2. Performance indices of PID controllers.|
|Performance Indices||System 1||System 2|
Based on the technological characteristics, a PID decoupling control strategy based on the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed. The simulation results indicated that the proposed control strategy has many characteristics of good dynamic and steady performance, strong robustness and the adaptability of the various working conditions and anti-interference capacity.
This work is partially supported by the Program for China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 20110491510), the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2011027), the Program for Anshan Science and Technology Project (Grant No. 2011MS11) and the Program for Research Special Foundation of University of Science and Technology of Liaoning (Grant No. 2011zx10).
Jie-Sheng Wang participated in the concept, design, interpretation and commented on the manuscript. A substantial amount of Chen-Xu Ning’s contribution to the draft writing and critical revision of this paper was undertaken. Yang Yang participated in the data collection, analysis and algorithm simulation. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Cao, F.; Wang, W.; Wang, J.-S. Intelligent optimal setting control of electroslag remelting process based on knowledge mining and case-based reasoning. Inf. Control 2010, 39, 114–119, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Li, B.; Wang, F.; Shan, M. Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Field in an Electroslag Remelting Process with Three-Phases Electrodes. In CFD Modeling and Simulation in Materials Processing; MNastac, L., Zhang, L., Thomas, B.G., Sabau, A., Ei-Kaddah, N., Powell, A.C., Combeau, H., Eds.; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2012; pp. 131–138. [Google Scholar]
- Weber, V.; Jardy, A.; Dussoubs, B.; Ablitzer, D.; Rybéron, S.; Schmitt, V.; Hans, S.; Poisson, H. A comprehensive model of the electroslag remelting process: Description and validation. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 2009, 40, 271–280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhang, L.; Wang, J.-C.; Wang, J.-B. Analysis and application of two principles for ESR furnace swing control. Metall. Ind. Autom. 2006, 2, 53–55, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Li, W.-Z.; Jia, X.-H.; Wang, J.-C.; Lin, Y.-S. Improvement of consarc ESR furnace control system. J. Iron Steel Res. 2007, 19, 99–101, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Zhao, L.-L.; Song, J.-C.; Liu, X.-H.; Liu, H.-Y. Intelligent control study based on genetic algorithm for electroslag remelting process. Mach. Electron. 2008, 5, 16–19, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Ren, W.; Zheng, X.-F.; Jiang, L.-X. Fuzzy adaptive PID control for electrode regulating system of electroslag furnace. Metall. Ind. Autom. 2006, 1, 15–18, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Jin, Y.C.; Ryu, K.H.; Sung, S.W.; Lee, J.; Lee, I.-B. PID auto-tuning using new model reduction method and explicit PID tuning rule for a fractional order plus time delay model. J. Process Control 2014, 24, 113–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dey, C.; Mudi, R.K. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PID controllers. ISA Trans. 2009, 48, 396–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jin, Q.B.; Hao, F.; Wang, Q. A multivariable IMC-PID method for non-square large time delay systems using NPSO algorithm. J. Process Control 2013, 23, 649–663. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sarkar, B.K.; Mandal, P.; Saha, R.; Mookherjee, S.; Sanyal, D. GA-optimized feedforward-PID tracking control for a rugged electrohydraulic system design. ISA Trans. 2013, 52, 853–861. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, W. Self-tuning of PID parameters based on particle swarm optimization. Control Decis. 2005, 20, 73–76, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Xiong, W.; Xu, B.; Zhou, Q. Study on optimization of PID parameter based on improved PSO. Comput. Eng. 2005, 31, 41–43, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Cao, F.; Wang, W. Harmony search based particle swarm optimisation approach for optimal PID control in electroslag remelting process. Int. J. Model. Identif. Control 2012, 15, 20–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wang, D.-Y.; He, G.-Q.; Song, W.-M.; Kang, Y.-J.; Liu, J.-Z. Study and application on intelligent control of the ESR process. Ind. Heat. 2005, 34, 42–45, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Ahn, S.; Beaman, J.J.; Williamson, R.L.; Melgaard, D.K. Model-Based control of electroslag remelting process using unscented kalman filter. J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 2010, 132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kennedy, J.; Eberhart, R. Particle Swarm Optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Perth, Australia, 27 November–1 December 1995; pp. 760–766.
- Wang, F.; Yu, P.L.H.; Cheung, D.W. Combining technical trading rules using particle swarm optimization. Expert Syst. Appl. 2014, 41, 3016–3026. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cheng, S.; Shi, Y.; Qin, Q. A study of normalized population diversity in particle swarm optimization. Int. J. Swarm Intell. Res. 2013, 4, 1–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ren, Z.; San, Z.; Chen, J. Improved particle swarm optimization and its application research in tuning of PID parameters. J. Syst. Simul. 2006, 18, 2870–2873, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Che, L.; Cheng, Z. Hybrid discrete differential evolution with a self-adaptive penalty function for constrained engineering optimization. J. Mech. Eng. 2011, 47, 141–151, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
- Hu, W.; Xu, F. Self-tuning of PID parameters based on improved particle swarm optimization. Appl. Res. Comput. 2012, 29, 1791–1794, (in Chinese). [Google Scholar]
© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).