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Challenges 2017, 8(1), 5; doi:10.3390/challe8010005

Ionic Mobility and Phase Transitions in Perovskite Oxides for Energy Application

1
CNR-ISC, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Area della Ricerca di Roma - Tor Vergata, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected papers from Thematic Meeting “Materials for Energy”)
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Abstract

Perovskite oxides find applications or are studied in many fields related to energy production, accumulation and saving. The most obvious application is oxygen or proton conductors in fuel cells (SOFCs), but the (anti)ferroelectric compositions may find application in high energy capacitors for energy storage, efficient electrocaloric cooling, and electromechanical energy harvesting. In SOFCs, the diffusion of O vacancies and other mobile ionic species, such as H+, are at the base of the functioning of the device, while in the other cases they constitute unwanted defects that reduce the performance and life-time of the device. Similarly, the (anti)ferroelectric phase transitions are a requisite for the use of some types of devices, but the accompanying domain walls can generate extended defects detrimental to the life of the material, and structural phase transformations should be avoided in SOFCs. All these phenomena can be studied by mechanical spectroscopy, the measurement of the complex elastic compliance as a function of temperature and frequency, which is the mechanical analogue of the dielectric susceptibility, but probes the elastic response and elastic dipoles instead of the dielectric response and electric dipoles. The two techniques can be combined to provide a comprehensive picture of the material properties. Examples are shown of the study of structural transitions and hopping and tunnelling processes of O vacancies and H in the ion conductor BaCe1-xYxO3-x and in SrTiO3-x, and of the aging and fatigue effects found in PZT at compositions where the ferro- and antiferroelectric states coexist. View Full-Text
Keywords: perovskites; ferroelectrics; ionic conductors; O vacancies; defects mobility and clustering; anelastic relaxation; dielectric relaxation; PZT; strontium titanate perovskites; ferroelectrics; ionic conductors; O vacancies; defects mobility and clustering; anelastic relaxation; dielectric relaxation; PZT; strontium titanate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cordero, F.; Craciun, F.; Trequattrini, F. Ionic Mobility and Phase Transitions in Perovskite Oxides for Energy Application. Challenges 2017, 8, 5.

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