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Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application
Microfluidics, IDEX Corporation, 30 Ossipee Rd., Newton, MA 02464, USA
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chemical Engineering Department, Bldg 66, Rm 305 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2012; in revised form: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
Abstract: Entrapment of sub-micron scale emulsions containing active ingredients into macro-scale matrices has exhibited great potential as a delivery vehicle with controlled release capabilities, however optimization remains unrealized. Reported here are methods used to improve product quality by optimizing the emulsion formation steps. These methods are in conjunction with the precepts of Process Intensification (PI). Success with pharmaceutics and chemical reacting systems provides a strategy for a wide range of applications; the emphasis here being nutraceutics. Use of a nano-technology platform assists in: (a) product quality improvements through better nutrient dispersion, and thus bio-efficacy; and (b) production efficiencies through implementation of PI concepts. A continuous methodology, utilizing these PI concepts, that approximates a bottom-up approach to the creation of sub-micron and nano-emulsions is the basis of the technology presented here. Note that solid particles may result during post-processing. The metrics of successful processing include obtainment of nano-scale species with minimal input energy, reduced processing steps at higher throughput rates, and improved quality without over-usage of key ingredients. In addition to flavor and wellness characteristics, product stability for extended shelf life along with an appreciable cargo load in the entrapped emulsion is a major concern. Experimental protocols and path forward recommendations to overcome challenges and meet expectations in these emerging opportunities are also presented.
Keywords: emulsion; nutraceuticals; bio-efficacy; nanoemulsion; emulsion stability
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MDPI and ACS Style
Panagiotou, T.; Fisher, R. Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application. Challenges 2012, 3, 84-113.
Panagiotou T, Fisher R. Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application. Challenges. 2012; 3(2):84-113.
Panagiotou, Thomai; Fisher, Robert. 2012. "Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application." Challenges 3, no. 2: 84-113.