Challenges 2012, 3(2), 84-113; doi:10.3390/challe3020084
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Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application

1,* email and 2email
Received: 10 May 2012; in revised form: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Chemical Processes)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Entrapment of sub-micron scale emulsions containing active ingredients into macro-scale matrices has exhibited great potential as a delivery vehicle with controlled release capabilities, however optimization remains unrealized. Reported here are methods used to improve product quality by optimizing the emulsion formation steps. These methods are in conjunction with the precepts of Process Intensification (PI). Success with pharmaceutics and chemical reacting systems provides a strategy for a wide range of applications; the emphasis here being nutraceutics. Use of a nano-technology platform assists in: (a) product quality improvements through better nutrient dispersion, and thus bio-efficacy; and (b) production efficiencies through implementation of PI concepts. A continuous methodology, utilizing these PI concepts, that approximates a bottom-up approach to the creation of sub-micron and nano-emulsions is the basis of the technology presented here. Note that solid particles may result during post-processing. The metrics of successful processing include obtainment of nano-scale species with minimal input energy, reduced processing steps at higher throughput rates, and improved quality without over-usage of key ingredients. In addition to flavor and wellness characteristics, product stability for extended shelf life along with an appreciable cargo load in the entrapped emulsion is a major concern. Experimental protocols and path forward recommendations to overcome challenges and meet expectations in these emerging opportunities are also presented.
Keywords: emulsion; nutraceuticals; bio-efficacy; nanoemulsion; emulsion stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Panagiotou, T.; Fisher, R. Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application. Challenges 2012, 3, 84-113.

AMA Style

Panagiotou T, Fisher R. Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application. Challenges. 2012; 3(2):84-113.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Panagiotou, Thomai; Fisher, Robert. 2012. "Improving Product Quality with Entrapped Stable Emulsions: From Theory to Industrial Application." Challenges 3, no. 2: 84-113.

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