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Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 54; doi:10.3390/antiox6030054

Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension

1
Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2
Department of Forensic Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China
3
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ROS Derived from NADPH Oxidase (NOX) in Angiogenesis)
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Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the lung vasculature that involves the loss of endothelial function together with inappropriate smooth muscle cell growth, inflammation, and fibrosis. These changes underlie a progressive remodeling of blood vessels that alters flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. Elevated pressures in the pulmonary artery imparts a chronic stress on the right ventricle which undergoes compensatory hypertrophy but eventually fails. How PAH develops remains incompletely understood and evidence for the altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS respectively) in the pulmonary circulation has been well documented. There are many different types of ROS and RNS, multiple sources, and collective actions and interactions. This review summarizes past and current knowledge of the sources of ROS and RNS and how they may contribute to the loss of endothelial function and changes in smooth muscle proliferation in the pulmonary circulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulmonary hypertension; reactive oxygen species; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase); Nox; nitric oxide; endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pulmonary hypertension; reactive oxygen species; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase); Nox; nitric oxide; endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fulton, D.J.; Li, X.; Bordan, Z.; Haigh, S.; Bentley, A.; Chen, F.; Barman, S.A. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 54.

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