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Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/antiox6010006

Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

1
School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini 69100, Greece
2
School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Karies, Trikala 42100, Greece
3
Children’s Health and Exercise Research Centre, Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK
4
Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
5
Faculty of Medicine, Endocrine Unit, “Aretaieion” Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11528, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stanley Omaye
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [247 KB, uploaded 17 January 2017]

Abstract

Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; redox regulation; inflammation; childhood; adolescence exercise; redox regulation; inflammation; childhood; adolescence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Avloniti, A.; Chatzinikolaou, A.; Deli, C.K.; Vlachopoulos, D.; Gracia-Marco, L.; Leontsini, D.; Draganidis, D.; Jamurtas, A.Z.; Mastorakos, G.; Fatouros, I.G. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 6.

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