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Antioxidants 2016, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/antiox5010009

Antioxidant and Antiglycating Constituents from Leaves of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata

1
Natural Products and Alternative Medicines, College of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Dammam, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Dammam, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Dammam, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4
Natural Products & Food Research and Analysis (NatuRA), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cecil Stushnoff
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
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Abstract

Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela Serrata plants have a folkloric use in Pakistan for treatments of different ailments, i.e., Jaundice, Hepatitis, Diabetes, and antimicrobial. Until now, none of the research studies have reported any phytochemical work on leaves of these two plants. This study aimed to isolate and perform phytochemical analysis in order to search for the constituent having the active role in treatment of the aforementioned ailments. A bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedure was used to isolate the concerned phytochemicals present in leaf extracts of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata. The process involved the hyphenated techniques, i.e., Flash Chromatography, Semi-Preparative HPLC/DAD, UPLC/MS, and NMR in order to isolate and elucidate the structure of the phytochemicals. Seven compounds (1–7) were isolated and identified as flavonoids, more in particular glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. They showed DPPH scavenging activity, compound 3 (isoquercitrin) being the most active one with an IC50 of 10.8 µg/mL (positive control quercetin; IC50 3.6 µg/mL). The superoxide-radical scavenging and total antioxidant (ABTS) assays indicated IC50 values ranging from 200 to 910 µg/mL and 170 to 320 µg/mL, respectively (positive control quercetin: 374 and 180 µg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, these compounds had low IC50 values for inhibition of protein glycation (AGEs inhibition), ranging from 530 to 818 µg/mL, comparable to aminoguanidine (510 µg/mL) used as a positive control. This study resulted in the identification of seven flavonoid glycosides for the first time from the leaves of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata with antioxidative and antiglycating activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ziziphus oxyphylla; Rhamnaceae; Cedrela serrata; Meliaceae; antioxidant; antiglycation; flavonoids Ziziphus oxyphylla; Rhamnaceae; Cedrela serrata; Meliaceae; antioxidant; antiglycation; flavonoids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, R.; Ahmad, N.; Naqvi, A.A.; Exarchou, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Tuenter, E.; Foubert, K.; Apers, S.; Hermans, N.; Pieters, L. Antioxidant and Antiglycating Constituents from Leaves of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 9.

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