Next Article in Journal
Shunt Damping Vibration Control Technology: A Review
Next Article in Special Issue
The Role of the Cerebellum in Unconscious and Conscious Processing of Emotions: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
The Index System for the Development Level Evaluation of Regional Construction Industrialization: A Case Study in Jiangsu, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Conscious and Non-Conscious Components of the Mind
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 493; doi:10.3390/app7050493

Conscious and Non-Conscious Measures of Emotion: Do They Vary with Frequency of Pornography Use?

School of Psychology, Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health Research, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, NSW, Australia
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia
Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviour Lab (CanBeLab), Department of Psychology, Webster Vienna Private University, Palais Wenkheim, 1020 Vienna, Austria
Faculty of Psychology, Vienna University, 1010 Vienna, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takayoshi Kobayashi
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub- and Unconscious Information Processing in the Human Brain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1422 KB, uploaded 11 May 2017]   |  


Increased pornography use has been a feature of contemporary human society, with technological advances allowing for high speed internet and relative ease of access via a multitude of wireless devices. Does increased pornography exposure alter general emotion processing? Research in the area of pornography use is heavily reliant on conscious self-report measures. However, increasing knowledge indicates that attitudes and emotions are extensively processed on a non-conscious level prior to conscious appraisal. Hence, this exploratory study aimed to investigate whether frequency of pornography use has an impact on non-conscious and/or conscious emotion processes. Participants (N = 52) who reported viewing various amounts of pornography were presented with emotion inducing images. Brain Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded and Startle Reflex Modulation (SRM) was applied to determine non-conscious emotion processes. Explicit valence and arousal ratings for each image presented were also taken to determine conscious emotion effects. Conscious explicit ratings revealed significant differences with respect to “Erotic” and “Pleasant” valence (pleasantness) ratings depending on pornography use. SRM showed effects approaching significance and ERPs showed changes in frontal and parietal regions of the brain in relation to “Unpleasant” and “Violent” emotion picture categories, which did not correlate with differences seen in the explicit ratings. Findings suggest that increased pornography use appears to have an influence on the brain’s non-conscious responses to emotion-inducing stimuli which was not shown by explicit self-report. View Full-Text
Keywords: conscious versus non-conscious processes; pornography; emotion; affective responses; EEG; triangulation conscious versus non-conscious processes; pornography; emotion; affective responses; EEG; triangulation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kunaharan, S.; Halpin, S.; Sitharthan, T.; Bosshard, S.; Walla, P. Conscious and Non-Conscious Measures of Emotion: Do They Vary with Frequency of Pornography Use? Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 493.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top