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Environments 2018, 5(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5030035

Alkali-Activated Mortars for Sustainable Building Solutions: Effect of Binder Composition on Technical Performance

1
Diagnostic and Civil Engineering Area, Materials and Structures Engineering Department, CETMA—Technologies Design and Materials European Research Centre, 72100 Brindisi, Italy
2
Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering Department, University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Geopolymer Composites)
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Abstract

There is a growing interest in the construction sector in the use of sustainable binders as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, the production of which is highly impacting on the environment, due to high carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. Alkali-activated binders, especially those resulting from low-cost industrial by-products, such as coal fly ash or metallurgical slag, represent a sustainable option for cement replacement, though their use is more challenging, due to some technological issues related to workability or curing conditions. This paper presents sustainable alkali-activated mortars cured in room conditions and based on metakaolin, fly ash, and furnace slag (both by-products resulting from local sources) and relevant blends, aiming at their real scale application in the building sector. The effect of binder composition—gradually adjusted taking into consideration technical and environmental aspects (use of industrial by-products in place of natural materials in the view of resources saving)—on the performance (workability, compressive strength) of different mortar formulations, is discussed in detail. Some guidelines for the design of cement-free binders are given, taking into consideration the effect of each investigated alumino-silicate component. The technical feasibility to produce the mortars with standard procedures and equipment, the curing in room conditions, the promising results achieved in terms of workability and mechanical performance (from 20.0 MPa up to 52.0 MPa), confirm the potential of such materials for practical applications (masonry mortars of class M20 and Md). The cement-free binders resulting from this study can be used as reference for the development of mortars and concrete formulations for sustainable building materials production. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkali-activated binders; cement-free mortars; environment; resource efficiency; secondary raw materials alkali-activated binders; cement-free mortars; environment; resource efficiency; secondary raw materials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Attanasio, A.; Pascali, L.; Tarantino, V.; Arena, W.; Largo, A. Alkali-Activated Mortars for Sustainable Building Solutions: Effect of Binder Composition on Technical Performance. Environments 2018, 5, 35.

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