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Environments 2018, 5(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5030033

Contamination of Plants from Amazonia by Environmental Pollution

1
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G.Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate of Toxic Pollutants in the Environment)
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Abstract

Analytical data concerning the contamination on three officinal plants due to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), as organochlorine pesticides, are reported and discussed. Analyzed vegetation—“Graviola” (Annona muricata), “Mullaca” (Physalis angulata) and “Balsamina” (Impatiens balsamina)—comes from the Peruvian Amazonian forest, and are well known for their numerous therapeutic properties. A portion of each vegetable sample (leaves) was submitted to extraction procedure with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) solution by using a continuous solid-liquid extraction. The extracts were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and Multi Reaction Monitoring (MRM) techniques. Obtained results show the presence of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its breakdown products, as DDD (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), while the hexachlorobenzene was found only in the “Graviola” (0.041 ng/g of dry weight (d.w.) net matter). The total POPs quantities were detected in the concentration range of ppb, varying from 0.349 and 0.614 ng/g d.w. for “Mullaca” and “Graviola”, respectively, up to 1.329 ng/g d.w. in the case of “Balsamina”. Recorded concentration trace values in the case of hexachlorobenzene could be an indication of a contamination of plants due to a probable short-range atmospheric transport pollution. The DDT contamination could be due to the use of DDT against malaria during the years 1992–1997 or to a probable usage of dicoflos and rothane insecticide in the harvesting area. Our analytical determinations exclude the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in all three investigated plant materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: GC-MS/MS analysis; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; plant contamination; pollution; pesticides; Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) GC-MS/MS analysis; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; plant contamination; pollution; pesticides; Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sebastiani, B.; Falcinelli, S. Contamination of Plants from Amazonia by Environmental Pollution. Environments 2018, 5, 33.

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