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Environments 2017, 4(3), 54; doi:10.3390/environments4030054

Which Ballast Water Management System Will You Put Aboard? Remnant Anxieties: A Mini-Review

1
Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira—IEAPM, Brazilian Navy, Rua Kioto 253, Praia dos Anjos, Arraial do Cabo 28930-000, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Síntese e Análise de Produtos Estratégicos—LASAPE/IQ-UFRJ, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909, Brazil
3
Marine Invasions Research Laboratory, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center—SERC, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21037-0028, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [256 KB, uploaded 3 August 2017]

Abstract

An accepted solution to the environmental problems related to a ship’s ballast water has been the adoption and proper utilization of approved onboard ballast water plans and management systems (BWMS). On 8 September 2017, the International Maritime Organization Ballast Water Management Convention comes into force, and under this Convention, ships engaged in international trade must have an approved BWMS aboard to discharge ballast water, reducing species transfer. In response to enormous global concern about this problem, the overwhelming majority of the BWMS, approved currently for use by International Maritime Organization (IMO) and United States Coast Guard, utilize two main technologies (electro-chlorination or ultraviolet irradiation) as their principle mode of disinfection, often used in combination with filtration. However, both technologies have been questioned regarding their practically, efficiency, and possible environmental impacts upon discharge. This review article aims to explore some questions about these two technologies, drawing attention to some current uncertainties associated with their use. Also, it draws attention to some technical obstacles and regulatory impediments related to the new development of green biocide technology, which largely has been ignored, despite its potential as a simpler, cleaner and effective technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: ballast water treatment; invasive organisms; electro-chlorination; ultraviolet disinfection; green biocide ballast water treatment; invasive organisms; electro-chlorination; ultraviolet disinfection; green biocide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Batista, W.R.; Fernandes, F.C.; Lopes, C.C.; Lopes, R.S.C.; Miller, W.; Ruiz, G. Which Ballast Water Management System Will You Put Aboard? Remnant Anxieties: A Mini-Review. Environments 2017, 4, 54.

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