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Microorganisms 2017, 5(4), 76; doi:10.3390/microorganisms5040076

Biotechnological Applications of Microbial (Per)chlorate Reduction

1,2
and
1,2,3,*
1
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
Energy Biosciences Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
3
Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms for Environmental and Industrial Applications)
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Abstract

While the microbial degradation of a chloroxyanion-based herbicide was first observed nearly ninety years ago, only recently have researchers elucidated the underlying mechanisms of perchlorate and chlorate [collectively, (per)chlorate] respiration. Although the obvious application of these metabolisms lies in the bioremediation and attenuation of (per)chlorate in contaminated environments, a diversity of alternative and innovative biotechnological applications has been proposed based on the unique metabolic abilities of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB). This is fueled in part by the unique ability of these organisms to generate molecular oxygen as a transient intermediate of the central pathway of (per)chlorate respiration. This ability, along with other novel aspects of the metabolism, have resulted in a wide and disparate range of potential biotechnological applications being proposed, including enzymatic perchlorate detection; gas gangrene therapy; enhanced xenobiotic bioremediation; oil reservoir bio-souring control; chemostat hygiene control; aeration enhancement in industrial bioreactors; and, biogenic oxygen production for planetary exploration. While previous reviews focus on the fundamental science of microbial (per)chlorate reduction (for example see Youngblut et al., 2016), here, we provide an overview of the emerging biotechnological applications of (per)chlorate respiration and the underlying organisms and enzymes to environmental and biotechnological industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: perchlorate; chlorate; microbial perchlorate reduction; perchlorate bioremediation; bio-souring control; bioreactor hygiene controls; aeration enhancement perchlorate; chlorate; microbial perchlorate reduction; perchlorate bioremediation; bio-souring control; bioreactor hygiene controls; aeration enhancement
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, O.; Coates, J.D. Biotechnological Applications of Microbial (Per)chlorate Reduction. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 76.

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