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Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 51; doi:10.3390/microorganisms5030051

The Sea as a Rich Source of Structurally Unique Glycosaminoglycans and Mimetics

1
Program of Glycobiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry Leopoldo de Meis, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, Brazil
2
University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-913, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Exopolysaccharides to Mimic Glycosaminoglycans)
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Abstract

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated glycans capable of regulating various biological and medical functions. Heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate and hyaluronan are the principal classes of GAGs found in animals. Although GAGs are all composed of disaccharide repeating building blocks, the sulfation patterns and the composing alternating monosaccharides vary among classes. Interestingly, GAGs from marine organisms can present structures clearly distinct from terrestrial animals even considering the same class of GAG. The holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, the dermatan sulfates with distinct sulfation patterns extracted from ascidian species, the sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate isolated from the gastropode Nodipecten nodosum, and the hybrid heparin/heparan sulfate molecule obtained from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are some typical examples. Besides being a rich source of structurally unique GAGs, the sea is also a wealthy environment of GAG-resembling sulfated glycans. Examples of these mimetics are the sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans found in brown, red and green algae, sea urchins and sea cucumbers. For adequate visualization, representations of all discussed molecules are given in both Haworth projections and 3D models. View Full-Text
Keywords: chondroitin sulfate; glycosaminoglycans; heparan sulfate; heparin; sulfated fucans; sulfated galactans chondroitin sulfate; glycosaminoglycans; heparan sulfate; heparin; sulfated fucans; sulfated galactans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vasconcelos, A.A.; Pomin, V.H. The Sea as a Rich Source of Structurally Unique Glycosaminoglycans and Mimetics. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 51.

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