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Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 29; doi:10.3390/microorganisms5020029

Toxin Variability Estimations of 68 Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) Strains from The Netherlands Reveal a Novel Abundant Gymnodimine

1
Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, Bremerhaven 27570, Germany
2
Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (VERIFIN), Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P. O. Box 55, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Napoli Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, Napoli 80131, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jussi Meriluoto and Anke Kremp
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 21 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Cyanobacteria and Toxic Dinoflagellates)
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Abstract

Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2. We also examined the production of spiroimine toxins by the Dutch A. ostenfeldii strains. An extensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed a high intraspecific variability of spirolides (SPX) and gymnodimines (GYM). Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Besides spirolides, the presence of gymnodimine A and 12-Methyl-gymnodimine A was confirmed, together with two new gymnodimines. One of these was tentatively identified as an analogue of gymnodimine D and was the most abundant gymnodimine (calculated cell quota up to 274 pg cell−1, expressed as GYM A equivalents). Our multi-clonal approach adds new analogues to the increasing number of compounds in these toxin classes and revealed a high strain variability in cell quota and in toxin profile of toxic compounds within a single population. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alexandrium ostenfeldii; PSP-toxins; spiroimines; spirolides; gymnodimines; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Alexandrium ostenfeldii; PSP-toxins; spiroimines; spirolides; gymnodimines; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martens, H.; Tillmann, U.; Harju, K.; Dell’Aversano, C.; Tartaglione, L.; Krock, B. Toxin Variability Estimations of 68 Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) Strains from The Netherlands Reveal a Novel Abundant Gymnodimine. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 29.

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