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Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 27; doi:10.3390/microorganisms5020027

From Genome to Phenotype: An Integrative Approach to Evaluate the Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis

1
LISBP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INRA, INSA, Toulouse, France
2
Département des Sciences Agronomiques et Agroalimentaire, équipe Agroalimentaire et Nutrition, Université de Toulouse, INP-Purpan, Toulouse, France
3
Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, Toulouse, France
4
Université de Toulouse III, Université Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Régine Talon and Monique Zagorec
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1034 KB, uploaded 19 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Lactococcus lactis is one of the most extensively used lactic acid bacteria for the manufacture of dairy products. Exploring the biodiversity of L. lactis is extremely promising both to acquire new knowledge and for food and health-driven applications. L. lactis is divided into four subspecies: lactis, cremoris, hordniae and tructae, but only subsp. lactis and subsp. cremoris are of industrial interest. Due to its various biotopes, Lactococcus subsp. lactis is considered the most diverse. The diversity of L. lactis subsp. lactis has been assessed at genetic, genomic and phenotypic levels. Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) analysis of strains from different origins revealed that the subsp. lactis can be classified in two groups: “domesticated” strains with low genetic diversity, and “environmental” strains that are the main contributors of the genetic diversity of the subsp. lactis. As expected, the phenotype investigation of L. lactis strains reported here revealed highly diverse carbohydrate metabolism, especially in plant- and gut-derived carbohydrates, diacetyl production and stress survival. The integration of genotypic and phenotypic studies could improve the relevance of screening culture collections for the selection of strains dedicated to specific functions and applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactococcus lactis; diversity; genotype; phenotype; diacetyl; raffinose metabolism Lactococcus lactis; diversity; genotype; phenotype; diacetyl; raffinose metabolism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Laroute, V.; Tormo, H.; Couderc, C.; Mercier-Bonin, M.; Le Bourgeois, P.; Cocaign-Bousquet, M.; Daveran-Mingot, M.-L. From Genome to Phenotype: An Integrative Approach to Evaluate the Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 27.

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