Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Effects of Perchlorates on the Permafrost Methanogens: Implication for Autotrophic Life on Mars
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Methanotrophs of the Family Methylococcaceae from Different Geographical Regions and Habitats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Role of Bacterial Exopolysaccharides as Agents in Counteracting Immune Disorders Induced by Herpes Virus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Microorganisms 2015, 3(3), 500-517; doi:10.3390/microorganisms3030500

A Three-Component Microbial Consortium from Deep-Sea Salt-Saturated Anoxic Lake Thetis Links Anaerobic Glycine Betaine Degradation with Methanogenesis

1
Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Spianata S. Raineri 86, Messina 98122, Italy
2
Department of Organic and Biological Chemistry, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, Villaggio S. Agata, Messina 98166, Italy
3
Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM), 16 bd de Suisse, MC 98000, Monaco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ricardo Amils and Elena González Toril
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extremophiles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1018 KB, uploaded 9 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Microbial communities inhabiting the deep-sea salt-saturated anoxic lakes of the Eastern Mediterranean operate under harsh physical-chemical conditions that are incompatible with the lifestyle of common marine microorganisms. Here, we investigated a stable three-component microbial consortium obtained from the brine of the recently discovered deep-sea salt-saturated Lake Thetis. The trophic network of this consortium, established at salinities up to 240, relies on fermentative decomposition of common osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB). Similarly to known extreme halophilic anaerobic GB-degrading enrichments, the initial step of GB degradation starts with its reductive cleavage to trimethylamine and acetate, carried out by the fermenting member of the Thetis enrichment, Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21. In contrast to acetate, which cannot be easily oxidized in salt-saturated anoxic environments, trimethylamine represents an advantageous C1-substrate for methylotrophic methanogenic member of the Thetis enrichment, Methanohalophilus sp. TA21. This second member of the consortium likely produces hydrogen via methylotrophic modification of reductive acetyl-CoA pathway because the initial anaerobic GB cleavage reaction requires the consumption of reducing equivalents. Ecophysiological role of the third member of the Thetis consortium, Halanaerobium sp. TB24, which lacks the capability of either GB or trimethylamine degradation, remains yet to be elucidated. As it is true for cultivated members of family Halanaerobiaceae, the isolate TB24 can obtain energy primarily by fermenting simple sugars and producing hydrogen as one of the end products. Hence, by consuming of TB21 and TA21 metabolites, Halanaerobium sp. TB24 can be an additional provider of reducing equivalents required for reductive degradation of GB. Description of the Thetis GB-degrading consortium indicated that anaerobic degradation of osmoregulatory molecules may play important role in the overall turnover of organic carbon in anoxic hypersaline biotopes. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes; redoxicline; glycine betaine degradation; methylotrophic halophiles; methanogenesis deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes; redoxicline; glycine betaine degradation; methylotrophic halophiles; methanogenesis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cono, V.L.; Arcadi, E.; Spada, G.L.; Barreca, D.; Laganà, G.; Bellocco, E.; Catalfamo, M.; Smedile, F.; Messina, E.; Giuliano, L.; Yakimov, M.M. A Three-Component Microbial Consortium from Deep-Sea Salt-Saturated Anoxic Lake Thetis Links Anaerobic Glycine Betaine Degradation with Methanogenesis. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 500-517.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Microorganisms EISSN 2076-2607 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top