Next Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Social Sciences in 2015
Next Article in Special Issue
Hybridity: A Theory of Agency in Early Childhood Governance
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Community Engaged Leadership to Advance Health Equity and Build Healthier Communities
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/socsci5010003

The Effectiveness of Healthy Community Approaches on Positive Health Outcomes in Canada and the United States

1
Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5, Canada
2
Faculty of Social Work, Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit, University of Regina, Prince Albert Campus, Saskatchewan S6V 7S3, Canada
3
Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2, Canada
4
Community Health and Epidemiology, Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jerry D. Marx
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [617 KB, uploaded 29 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Healthy community approaches encompass a diverse group of population based strategies and interventions that create supportive environments, foster community behavior change and improve health. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of ten most common healthy community approaches (Healthy Cities/Communities, Smart Growth, Child Friendly Cities, Safe Routes to Schools, Safe Communities, Active Living Communities, Livable Communities, Social Cities, Age-Friendly Cities, and Dementia Friendly Cities) on positive health outcomes. Empirical studies were identified through a search of the academic and grey literature for the period 2000–2014. Of the 231 articles retrieved, 26 met the inclusion criteria with four receiving moderate quality ratings and 22 poor ratings using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. The majority of studies evaluated Safe Routes to School Programs and reported positive associations with students’ active commute patterns. Fewer studies assessed benefits of Smart Growth, Safe Communities, Active Living Communities and Age-Friendly Cities. The remaining approaches were relatively unexplored in terms of their health benefits however focused on conceptual frameworks and collaborative processes. More robust studies with longer follow-up duration are needed. Priority should be given to evaluation of healthy community projects to show their effectiveness within the population health context. View Full-Text
Keywords: effectiveness; healthy community approaches; health outcomes effectiveness; healthy community approaches; health outcomes
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Williams-Roberts, H.; Jeffery, B.; Johnson, S.; Muhajarine, N. The Effectiveness of Healthy Community Approaches on Positive Health Outcomes in Canada and the United States. Soc. Sci. 2016, 5, 3.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Soc. Sci. EISSN 2076-0760 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top