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Millennium Development Goals and the Protection of Displaced and Refugee Women and Girls
School of Law, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Suite 1244, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
Abstract: The international protection regime of refugee, stateless and displaced women and girls has significant deficiencies. As refugees and displaced persons, women and girls experience unique challenges. They suffer abuse disproportionately as women through rape, human trafficking, and female genital mutilation. Women and girl refugees face greater challenges and risks to safety at every stage of displacement: in refugee camps, in urban spaces, in transit to safe haven, and in the process of obtaining legal status. They are frequently at the mercy of male family members in making claims to refugee and asylum status, as females are often unable to obtain necessary documentation and navigate barriers to the asylum process that uniquely disfavor women’s claims. This paper argues that the UN must expand the scope of the Millennium Development Goals to specifically include state responsibility towards refugees and displaced persons in their territories, without regard to their legal status. Until the international regime designed to protect refugees and displaced persons closes the gaps in addressing female refugees and displaced persons’ unique vulnerabilities, the UN’s Millennium Development Goals should be reoriented to include state responsibility to meet these deficiencies.
Keywords: refugee women; refugee girls; displaced; Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); rape; female genital mutilation (FGM)
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Akram, S.M. Millennium Development Goals and the Protection of Displaced and Refugee Women and Girls. Laws 2013, 2, 283-313.
Akram SM. Millennium Development Goals and the Protection of Displaced and Refugee Women and Girls. Laws. 2013; 2(3):283-313.
Akram, Susan M. 2013. "Millennium Development Goals and the Protection of Displaced and Refugee Women and Girls." Laws 2, no. 3: 283-313.