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Metals 2015, 5(3), 1543-1552; doi:10.3390/met5031543

Separation and Recycling for Rare Earth Elements by Homogeneous Liquid-Liquid Extraction (HoLLE) Using a pH-Responsive Fluorine-Based Surfactant

1
Department of Biomolecular Functional Engineering, College of Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan
2
Industrial Technology Institute of Ibaraki Prefecture, 3781-1 Nagaoka, Ibaraki-machi, Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-3195, Japan
3
Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Material Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Suresh Bhargava
Received: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrometallurgy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [422 KB, uploaded 27 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

A selective separation and recycling system for metal ions was developed by homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HoLLE) using a fluorosurfactant. Sixty-two different elemental ions (e.g., Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, In, Ir, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, and Zr) were examined. By changing pH from a neutral or alkaline solution (pH ≥ 6.5) to that of an acidic solution (pH < 4.0), gallium, zirconium, palladium, silver, platinum, and rare earth elements were extracted at >90% efficiency into a sedimented Zonyl FSA® (CF3(CF2)n(CH2)2S(CH2)2COOH, n = 6–8) liquid phase. Moreover, all rare earth elements were obtained with superior extraction and stripping percentages. In the recycling of rare earth elements, the sedimented phase was maintained using a filter along with a mixed solution of THF and 1 M sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. The Zonyl FSA® was filtrated and the rare earth elements were recovered on the filter as a hydroxide. Furthermore, the filtrated Zonyl FSA was reusable by conditioning the subject pH. View Full-Text
Keywords: homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction; HoLLE; phase separation phenomenon; fluorosurfactant; ion association; rare earth elements; separation and recycling; hydrometallurgy homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction; HoLLE; phase separation phenomenon; fluorosurfactant; ion association; rare earth elements; separation and recycling; hydrometallurgy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Saito, S.; Ohno, O.; Igarashi, S.; Kato, T.; Yamaguchi, H. Separation and Recycling for Rare Earth Elements by Homogeneous Liquid-Liquid Extraction (HoLLE) Using a pH-Responsive Fluorine-Based Surfactant. Metals 2015, 5, 1543-1552.

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