Next Article in Journal
Coal-Mining Tailings as a Pozzolanic Material in Cements Industry
Next Article in Special Issue
Large-Scale Consumption and Zero-Waste Recycling Method of Red Mud in Steel Making Process
Previous Article in Journal
A Posteriori Analysis of Analytical Models for Heap Leaching Using Uncertainty and Global Sensitivity Analyses
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Minerals 2018, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8020045

Calcium Chloride-Assisted Segregation Reduction of Chromite: Influence of Reductant Type and the Mechanism

CanmetMINING, Natural Resources Canada, 555 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON K1A 0G1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainability in Extractive Metallurgy)

Abstract

This paper describes an innovative process for the production of ferrochromium alloy via segregation reduction of chromite at 1300 °C in the presence of calcium chloride. Both charcoal and petroleum coke were used as the reductant. Individual polycrystalline ferrochrome carbide particles were produced, with their particle size and shape resembling that of the starting carbon particles. Interactions among calcium chloride, clinochlore, and chromite resulted in the formation of Ca-bearing chromite, wadalite, and gaseous chlorides. Monocrystalline ferrochrome carbide whiskers were formed only when charcoal in the presence of calcium chloride was used to reduce the chromite fraction containing large amounts of siliceous gangue. Incorporating thermodynamic evaluations, a possible segregation reduction mechanism is suggested based on the characterization of the products using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis, combined with thermogravimetric analysis. Metallization within chromite particles was minimized, which is suggested to be due to the ubiquitous presence of molten and gaseous calcium chloride between the chromite and carbon particles, and especially in the porous rim of the chromite particles during reduction, resulting in restricted metallization only on the carbon particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromite; ferrochrome; carbothermic reduction; segregation; CaCl2; wadalite chromite; ferrochrome; carbothermic reduction; segregation; CaCl2; wadalite
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, D.; Paktunc, D. Calcium Chloride-Assisted Segregation Reduction of Chromite: Influence of Reductant Type and the Mechanism. Minerals 2018, 8, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top