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Minerals 2017, 7(11), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7110217

C–O Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Carbonate Minerals in the Nonsulfide Zinc Deposits of the Middle East: A Review

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 21, 80126 Napoli, Italy
2
GeoZentrum Nordbayern, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
3
Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Mineralogy of Zn-Pb Nonsulfide Deposits)
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Abstract

Zinc nonsulfides are well represented in the Middle East, with occurrences in Turkey, Iran, and Yemen. Their genesis can be constrained by using carbon and oxygen isotope systematics applied to carbonate minerals. The δ13C ratios of smithsonite and hydrozincite in Iran and Turkey are comprised in the typical interval of supergene Zn carbonates (−0.4 and −7.1‰ V-PDB). The oxygen isotope geochemistry is more complex. Oxygen isotope compositions of smithsonite of the Hakkari deposit (Turkey) (δ18O from 24.2 to 25.6‰ V-SMOW) point to precipitation temperatures between ~4 and ~18 °C, corresponding to a normal weathering environment at these latitudes, whereas δ18O of smithsonite from other Middle East deposits (Angouran in Iran, Jabali in Yemen) point to the precipitation from low- to medium-temperature hydrothermal fluids. The C–O isotopic compositions of hydrozincite from the Mehdi Abad, Irankuh, and Chah-Talkh deposits can be only partially compared with those of smithsonite, because the oxygen isotopes fractionation equation for hydrozincite-water is not known. A comparison between the geochemical characteristics of all Zn-nonsulfide ores in the Middle East indicates that, even though several mineral deposits are derived from supergene weathering processes, other ones have been deposited from fluids associated with magmatic activity (Angouran, Iran) or with hydrothermal systems (Jabali, Yemen). This suggests that it is not possible to apply a common interpretative model to the genesis of all nonsulfide deposits in the Middle East. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zn-nonsulfide deposits; C–O stable isotopes; weathering; Middle East Zn-nonsulfide deposits; C–O stable isotopes; weathering; Middle East
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Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Joachimski, M.; Santoro, L. C–O Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Carbonate Minerals in the Nonsulfide Zinc Deposits of the Middle East: A Review. Minerals 2017, 7, 217.

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