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Minerals 2016, 6(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/min6040131

Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

1
Department of Earth Sciences, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
2
Department of Urology and Endourology, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Zand Street, P.O. Box 71344, Shiraz, Iran
3
Department of Geology, Shahid Chamran University (SCU), Ahvaz 87234, Iran
4
Department of Anesthesia, Shaheed Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Zand Street, P.O. Box 71344, Shiraz, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Sylvester
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract

This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarizing microscope (PM) techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate) and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system. View Full-Text
Keywords: mineralogy; urinary stone; XRD and SEM; gender and age; Fars mineralogy; urinary stone; XRD and SEM; gender and age; Fars
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Keshavarzi, B.; Yavar Ashayeri, N.; Moore, F.; Irani, D.; Asadi, S.; Zarasvandi, A.; Salari, M. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age. Minerals 2016, 6, 131.

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